Tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA) is one of the major lipophilic components isolated from the root of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix. We explored the mechanisms of cell death induced by Tan-IIA treatment in prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
Cells were treated with Tan-IIA and growth inhibition was assessed. Cell cycle profiles after Tan-IIA treatment were determined by flow cytometry. Expression levels of cell cycle regulatory proteins and apoptosis-related proteins were determined after Tan-IIA treatment. Expression levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-regulated genes were determined to investigate their role in Tan-IIA-induced cell death. GADD153 expression was knocked down by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection. Rate of cell death and proliferation was obtained by 3-(4,5-dimethyl thizol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Antitumor activity of Tan-IIA was performed in LNCaP xenograft model.
Our results showed that Tan-IIA caused prostate cancer cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase was noted, in LNCaP cells. The G0/G1 phase arrest correlated with increase levels of CDK inhibitors (p16, p21 and p27) and decrease of the checkpoint proteins. Tan-IIA also induced ER stress in prostate cancer cells: activation and nuclear translocation of GADD153/CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP) were identified, and increased expression of the downstream molecules GRP78/BiP, inositol-requiring protein-1α and GADD153/CHOP were evidenced. Blockage of GADD153/CHOP expression by siRNA reduced Tan-IIA-induced cell death in LNCaP cells. Tan-IIA also suppressed LNCaP xenograft tumor growth, causing 86.4% reduction in tumor volume after 13 days of treatment.
Our findings suggest that Tan-IIA causes G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in LNCaP cells and its cytotoxicity is mediated at least partly by ER stress induction. These data provide evidence supporting Tan-IIA as a potential anticancer agent by inducing ER stress in prostate cancer.
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We thank Hsin-Rong Wu and Wei-Ping Huang for their assistance in animal studies. This work was supported by grants from the Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Hualien, Taiwan (TCSP-01-02, TCRD-I9801-03). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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Chiu, S., Huang, S., Chen, S. et al. Tanshinone IIA inhibits human prostate cancer cells growth by induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress in vitro and in vivo. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 16, 315–322 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1038/pcan.2013.38
- tanshinone IIA
- LNCaP cells
- ER stress
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