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Basic Research

Long-term quality of life in disadvantaged men with prostate cancer on androgen-deprivation therapy



To explore the effects of androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) on general, disease-specific and hormone-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among minority men.


Men enrolled in a state-funded program, providing free prostate cancer treatment for underserved men, were recruited, if they had received at least 3 months of continuous ADT and/or other forms of primary treatment. HRQOL was assessed with validated measures including the RAND Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Health Short Form Survey (SF-12), the UCLA Prostate Cancer Index Survey and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite Survey. Repeated measures analysis was performed to evaluate the association between clinical and sociodemographic covariates with HRQOL.


We enrolled 322 men, including 94 on ADT and 228 who received other forms of treatment. When controlling for patient characteristics, men receiving ADT had poorer outcomes relative to sexual function (P<0.01), sexual bother (P<0.01), hormonal function (P<0.01) and hormonal bother (P=0.02). ADT use was significantly associated with worsening sexual function (P<0.01) and sexual bother (P=0.01) over two years compared with non-ADT users. Analysis also demonstrated significant differences between whites, Hispanics and Others (African American (n=43, 16%), Asian (n=13, 5%), multiracial (n=1, 0.4%), Native American (n=1, 0.4%) and other (n=9, 3%)) relative to urinary bother (P=0.01), urinary function (P=0.01) and hormonal bother (P=0.03). ADT users had better urinary function and less bother than non-ADT users among the Other group, while the opposite was true for whites and Hispanics. For hormonal bother, ADT use was associated with worse outcomes across all three race/ethnicity groups; however, Hispanics were less bothered by their hormonal symptoms than whites or Others.


Men of disadvantaged backgrounds on hormone therapy for prostate cancer experience declines in sexual and hormonal HRQOL. Whites and non-whites on ADT have significantly different HRQOL outcomes.

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Correspondence to M S Litwin.

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Sevilla, C., Maliski, S., Kwan, L. et al. Long-term quality of life in disadvantaged men with prostate cancer on androgen-deprivation therapy. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 15, 237–243 (2012).

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  • androgen-deprivation therapy
  • quality of life
  • race
  • disadvantaged

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