Table 1: Non-metropolitanised (Ethnic) vs metropolitanised (Civic) nationalisms (applying the conceptual framework suggested by Keating, 2017a)

From: Metropolitan and city-regional politics in the urban age: why does “(smart) devolution” matter?

Conceptual frames of (city-)regional politics (adapted from (Keating, 2017a)) Non-metropolitanised/ethnic nationalism Metropolitanised/civic nationalism
Region as a refraction of social and economic interests Internally focused Externally focused
Integrative agenda Protectionist Internationalist
Identity construction Populist Collaborative
Welfare provision Exclusive/Conservative Inclusive/Progressivist
Government focus Geo-economics Geo-democratics
Competitiveness Bounded (“Them” versus “Us”) Entrepreneurial/Experimental