The tumor microenvironment (TME) exerts critical pro-tumorigenic effects through cytokines and growth factors that support cancer cell proliferation, survival, motility and invasion. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) stimulate colorectal cancer development and progression via cell autonomous and microenvironmental effects. Using a unique inhibitor, NT157, which targets both IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and STAT3, we show that these pathways regulate many TME functions associated with sporadic colonic tumorigenesis in CPC-APC mice, in which cancer development is driven by loss of the Apc tumor suppressor gene. NT157 causes a substantial reduction in tumor burden by affecting cancer cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) and myeloid cells. Decreased cancer cell proliferation and increased apoptosis were accompanied by inhibition of CAF activation and decreased inflammation. Furthermore, NT157 inhibited expression of pro-tumorigenic cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, including IL-6, IL-11 and IL-23 as well as CCL2, CCL5, CXCL7, CXCL5, ICAM1 and TGFβ; decreased cancer cell migratory activity and reduced their proliferation in the liver. NT157 represents a new class of anti-cancer drugs that affect both the malignant cell and its supportive microenvironment.
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ESL was supported by Sara Borrell fellowship ISCIII/MICINN program. SS and ZZ are CRI Irvington postdoctoral fellows. KT is Uehara Memorial Foundation Fellow. AL and EFA were supported by ERC Advanced Grant (249898) to AL. Research was supported by NIH grants (AI043477 and CA118165) to MK, who is an American Cancer Society Research Professor and holds the Ben and Wanda Hildyard Chair for Mitochondrial and Metabolic Diseases.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Supplementary Information accompanies this paper on the Oncogene website
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Signal interaction between the tumour and inflammatory cells in patients with gastrointestinal cancer: Implications for treatment
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