Persistence of NF-κB DNA binding following PARG inhibition. (a) Histogram showing PARP activity timecourse, measured using a validated immunoblot assay, which quantifies PAR polymer formation, in p65+/+ MEFs following 10 Gy IR±ADP-HPD (open bars IR, black bars IR+ADP-HPD). (b) Histogram showing NF-κB DNA-binding timecourse measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based method following IR±ADP-HPD (open bars IR, black bars IR+ADP-HPD). (c) The effects of increasing doses of IR on cell survival, either alone (solid line) or co-incubated with ADP-HPD (dashed line) were assessed using the clonogenic survival in p65+/+ MEFs. Cells were pretreated with ADP-HPD, or control 1 h before IR then re-plated after a further 24 h and allowed to form colonies for 7–21 days. All results are the mean of three independent experiments with s.e.m.