DNA degradation is one of the biochemical hallmarks detected in apoptotic cells, and several nucleases have been reported to function cooperatively in this process. It has also been suggested that different sets of nucleases are activated by different stimuli, and induce distinct patterns of DNA degradation. Here we report that apoptosis-enhancing nuclease (AEN) is a novel direct target gene of p53. AEN is induced by p53 with various DNA damage, and its expression is regulated by the phosphorylation status of p53. We demonstrate that AEN is a typical exonuclease with conserved exonuclease domains Exo I–III, and it targets both single- and double-stranded DNA and RNA. AEN induces apoptosis by itself, and the conserved domains are essential for both AEN nuclease activity and its apoptosis-inducing ability. AEN possesses nuclear and nucleolar localization signals, and it translocates from the nucleolus to nucleoplasm upon apoptosis induction. We also show the dislocation of nucleophosmin in conjunction with the translocation of AEN to the nucleoplasm, indicating the ability of AEN in nucleolus disruption. In addition, AEN is shown to be required for efficient DNA fragmentation in p53-dependent apoptosis. These results suggest that AEN is an important downstream mediator of p53 in apoptosis induction.
Apoptosis is an essential process in the development of organs, maintenance of appropriate cell numbers and proper elimination of unnecessary or damaged cells. Chromosome fragmentation is a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis and several nucleases have been reported to be involved in this process (Samejima and Earnshaw, 2005), including apoptotic nucleases such as DNase II, DFF40/CAD, Endo G and AEN. DNase II is a lysosomal nuclease, and functions in digesting chromosomal DNA in apoptotic cells engulfed by phagocytes (Kawane et al., 2006). The other three nucleases function prior to DNase II, in the early stage of apoptosis when apoptotic DNA degradation occurs (Parrish and Xue, 2006). DFF40/CAD is a cytoplasmic nuclease, and creates 3′ hydroxyl DNA breaks, leading to the generation of 50–300 kb cleavage products and subsequent internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (Nagata et al., 2003). Endo G is a mitochondrial endonuclease that is released from mitochondria to translocate into the nucleus during apoptosis (Li et al., 2001). Endo G also generates characteristic apoptotic DNA ladders. AEN has been reported as a nuclear apoptosis-enhancing nuclease, and has been shown to have exonuclease activity against various DNA substrates (Lee et al., 2005). These nucleases have different characteristics, that is, subcellular localization or enzymatic activity, and are suggested to act cooperatively during apoptosis.
Tumor suppressor gene p53 is the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene in human cancer, and it encodes a transcription factor (Levine, 1997; Prives, 1998; Vogelstein et al., 2000; Vousden and Lu, 2002; Hofseth et al., 2004; Shmueli and Oren, 2005; Liu and Chen, 2006). The p53 protein exerts its tumor suppressive function by inducing the target genes involved in apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest (El-Deiry, 1998; Oda et al., 2000; Ohki et al., 2000). We have been focusing on the functional regulation of p53 through the N-terminal transactivation domain (TAD) of p53. The p53 TAD contains multiple phosphorylation sites, and phosphorylation on these sites is essential for the full activation of p53 (Cordenonsi et al., 2007; Sun et al., 2007). It has been reported that mutations on Ser residues that undergo phosphorylation impair apoptotic activity of p53, and several pro-apoptotic p53 target genes particularly require phosphorylation of Ser residues within the p53 TAD (Unger et al., 1999; Chao et al., 2003; Kaeser et al., 2004; MacPherson et al., 2004; Mayo et al., 2005). We therefore screened for p53 target genes that require p53 phosphorylation, with the intention to identify pro-apoptotic p53 target genes. We performed microarray expression analysis using Saos2-derived cell lines stably expressing temperature-sensitive wild-type p53 and p53 carrying point mutations at all serine residues within the TAD (TAD-S/A; Ohki et al., 2007). In these cell lines, approximately 80% of genes induced by wild-type p53 were not induced by TAD-S/A, demonstrating the significance of phosphorylation within the TAD for the transactivation ability of p53. In addition, as expected, most of the pro-apoptotic genes among the previously reported p53 target genes were not induced by TAD-S/A.
Here we demonstrate that a previously reported apoptosis-enhancing nuclease gene, AEN, is a novel direct target gene of p53, and the expression of AEN is regulated by the phosphorylation status of p53. Furthermore, we have shown that AEN expression leads to apoptosis, and AEN is a mediator of p53-dependent apoptosis.
AEN is a p53-inducible gene
Among the phosphorylation-dependent genes, AEN gene was one of the genes strongly (7.7-fold) induced by temperature-sensitive wild-type p53 (Figure 1a). AEN mRNA was induced by the exogenous expression of p53 in Saos2 and H1299 cells (Figure 1b), and was also induced in a manner dependent on endogenous p53 in HCT116 p53 (+/+) cells and MRC5 cells upon γ-ray irradiation and 5-FU treatment (Figures 1c and d). In addition, various DNA-damaging agents, including adriamycin and 5-FU, induced AEN mRNA expression in many cell lines (Figures 1e and 3a).
AEN is a direct target gene of p53
Since AEN is induced by p53 upon DNA damage, we then explored whether AEN is a direct target gene of p53. The consensus binding motif of p53 is composed of two copies of 5′-RRRCWWGYYY-3′ separated by 0–13 base pairs (R, purine; Y, pyrimidine; W, A or T; El-Deiry et al., 1992). As shown in Figure 2a, we found three putative p53 responsive elements (REs), RE1 in the promoter region, and RE2 and RE3 in intron 1 of the AEN gene. The promoter region and intron 1 of AEN was PCR amplified and cloned upstream of the luciferase reporter gene. We first analysed if the 1.7 kb fragment containing RE1, 1.1 kb fragment containing RE2 and RE3 and 1.5 kb fragment containing RE3 show p53 responsiveness by luciferase reporter promoter assay. While the fragment containing RE2 and RE3 showed no response to wild-type p53, the fragment containing RE1 showed a strong response to p53 (Figure 2b). In order to identify the p53-responsive element within the 1.7 kb fragment, we next analysed p53 responsiveness of the shorter 0.5 kb fragment containing RE1 and the same fragment with four point mutations within the p53 consensus binding site. Although the 0.5 kb fragment containing RE1 showed strong p53 responsiveness, the mutant version of this fragment (RE1 mut) lost its responsiveness. On the other hand, the p53 mutant, V143A, which has no transcription activation ability, did not activate the promoter, confirming that activation of the AEN promoter by wild-type p53 is dependent of the transcriptional activity of p53. We also performed a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay to analyze if p53 protein binds to the AEN promoter in vivo. PCR primers to amplify the AEN promoter region were designed so as to contain RE1 and, as shown in Figure 2c, temperature-sensitive p53 bound to the AEN promoter only when p53 protein was in the active form (at the permissive temperature). Collectively, these results identify AEN as a bona-fide target gene of p53.
AEN expression is regulated by phosphorylation status of p53
As shown in Figure 1a, we found that AEN expression is severely defective in cells expressing ts-TAD-S/A. When the luciferase reporter assay was performed using a reporter construct containing p53 RE1, TAD-S/A showed 1.8-fold activation, while wild-type p53 showed 3.1-fold activation (Figure 2d). We therefore analysed which Ser residue within the TAD contributes to AEN expression. We constructed p53 phosphorylation-deficient mutants carrying single amino acid conversions from Ser to Ala on all Ser residues within the TAD. As shown in Figure 2d, while p53 Ala mutants at Ser 6, 9, 20, 33, 37, 46 showed activity similar to that of wild-type p53, the mutant with Ser 15 showed decreased activity similar to that of TAD-S/A (2.1-fold activation). On the other hand, phosphorylation-mimic mutant S15D showed enhanced promoter response (6-fold activation). It has been reported that Ser 15 of p53 is phosphorylated by ATM kinase upon γ-ray irradiation (Banin et al., 1998; Canman et al., 1998). To further address the significance of Ser15 phosphorylation on the expression of AEN, we analysed endogenous AEN expression in ATM-proficient normal human fibroblast WI-38 and ATM-deficient AT2KY fibroblast in response to γ-ray irradiation. As shown in Figure 2e, upon γ-ray irradiation, Ser 15 of p53 is efficiently phosphorylated in WI-38 cells, whereas diminished and delayed phosphorylation is detected in AT2KY cells. Moreover, in concordance with the strength of p53 phosphorylation at Ser 15, strong induction of AEN is achieved in WI-38 cells, while decreased induction is seen in AT2KY cells (Figures 2e and f). It is of note that the p53 protein level does not correlate with AEN expression (compare lanes 2 and 6 of Figures 2e and 2f). Taken together, phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 is required for effective induction of AEN. It has been reported that phosphorylation on Ser15 is required for efficient phosphorylation of Ser 9 and 20 (Saito et al., 2003). Although the single amino acid phosphorylation of Ser 9 and 20 does not have a dramatic effect on the AEN promoter, it may work in combination with Ser 15, owing to the fact that TAD-S/A showed slightly lower activation ability than S15A (Figure 2d). In addition, interaction with p300/CBP, a transcriptional co-activator of p53, also requires Ser 15 phosphorylation (Lambert et al., 1998). The requirement of Ser 15 phosphorylation for activation of the AEN promoter indicates the possible involvement of p300 in AEN induction. In agreement, the results from ChIP analysis showed that TAD-S/A was able to bind to the AEN promoter as efficiently as wild-type p53, but was still unable to fully activate the promoter (Figure 2c, lanes 5 and 6). Phosphorylation status of p53 may affect the recruitment of co-factors to the promoters, and thereby efficient activation of the promoters.
AEN is required for p53-dependent apoptosis
Since AEN is induced by p53 and reported to enhance apoptosis, we analysed whether AEN is involved in p53-dependent apoptosis (Lee et al., 2005). The human colorectal cancer cell line RKO has wild-type p53, and is known to undergo p53-dependent apoptosis upon DNA damage. Therefore, we knocked down AEN by introducing siRNA duplexes targeting AEN to the RKO cell line, and treated with 5-FU. As shown in Figure 3a, siRNA efficiently downregulated AEN expression. We next analysed the proportion of cells undergoing apoptosis by measuring cells in sub-G1 after DNA damage. As shown in Figure 3b, compared to cells treated with control siRNA, cells in sub-G1 decreased when treated with AEN siRNAs. Since the appearance of cells in the sub-G1 region is a consequence of cells with DNA fragmentation, and AEN ablation led to decreases in the sub-G1 region, we next performed a DNA fragmentation assay (Tounekti et al., 1995). Compared to cells treated with control siRNA, DNA fragmentation diminished in cells treated with AEN siRNAs (Figure 3c). Moreover, expression of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in cells treated with AEN siRNAs was reduced compared to control cells (Figure 3d). These results show that AEN is involved in the p53-dependent apoptosis pathway.
AEN is an exonuclease that targets both single- and double-stranded DNA and RNA
When the amino acid sequence of AEN was analysed in detail, we found that AEN possesses three characteristic sequence motifs, termed ExoI, ExoII and ExoIII, which are found in typical 3′–5′ exonuclease (Figure 4a). These domains are clustered around the active site and contain a catalytically active tyrosine and four negatively charged residues that serve as ligands for the two metal ions required for catalysis (Moser et al., 1997). Within these conserved residues, AEN possesses four negatively charged residues, Asp114, Glu116, Asp198 and Asp258. Among exonucleases, it is known that some do not possess the conserved Tyr, in place of which they possess Ser and the preceding His. AEN belongs to this type of nuclease, and has His253 and Ser254. Since these residues are known to be essential for nuclease activity, we constructed a mutant with amino acid conversions D114A, E116A and D258A within ExoI and ExoIII (Exo-mut, shown in Figure 4a). We first analysed the biochemical activity of each AEN protein by in vitro nuclease assay using Flag-tagged AEN proteins immunoprecipitated from transiently transfected 293T cells (Figures 4b and c). Wild-type AEN was previously reported to possess exonuclease activity against various DNA substrates (Lee et al., 2005), however, in addition to nuclease activity against DNA substrates, we have shown that AEN has nuclease activity against both single- (ss)- and double-stranded (ds)RNA substrates (Figure 4c). The physiological significance of the RNase activity of AEN is currently unknown and is an interesting future issue to be clarified. On the other hand, Exo-mut showed no activity against either of the substrates under the conditions tested (Figure 4c). These results demonstrate that AEN is a typical exonuclease and the amino acids Asp114, Glu116 and Asp258 are residues essential for AEN exonuclease activity.
To further examine the role of AEN as an exonuclease within the cell, we performed nondenaturing BrdU staining assay to analyse whether AEN expression leads to the formation of ssDNA within the cell. As shown in Figure 4d, while cells transfected with Exo-mut were negative for BrdU staining, cells expressing wild-type AEN were positive for BrdU staining; therefore, ssDNA was formed within the cell in a manner dependent on the exonuclease activity of AEN. Thus, in addition to the data obtained by biochemical analysis, it was shown that AEN digests DNA and forms ssDNA within the cell.
Apoptosis induction by AEN requires exonuclease activity
It has been reported that AEN induces apoptosis, and apoptosis-inducing ability is dependent on its nuclease activity (Lee et al., 2005); however, in our study, the expression of the previously described nuclease activity-deficient mutant of AEN was significantly low compared to that of wild-type AEN (data not shown). Therefore, to assess the apoptosis-inducing ability of nuclease activity-deficient AEN, we tested the efficiency of apoptosis induction by Exo-mut. First, in order to evaluate the expression level of each AEN protein, control empty pcDNA3, pcDNA3-AEN-Flag or pcDNA3-Exo-mut-Flag vectors were transfected to 293T cells. As shown in Figure 5a, each AEN protein was expressed at a similar level. In addition, subcellular localization of wild-type and Exo-mut AEN proteins were analysed in U2OS cells, and both proteins showed similar subcellular localization, showing that subcellular localization of AEN does not require exonuclease activity (Figure 6d and discussed below in detail). As shown in Figures 5b and c, when AEN-expressing cells were observed, they showed typical apoptotic phenotypes revealed by 4′-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and were positive for annexin V and caspase-3 activity. On the other hand, Exo-mut-expressing cells did not show these phenotypes. Then, control empty pcDNA3, pcDNA3-AEN-Flag or pcDNA3-Exo-mut-Flag vectors were transfected to U2OS, HCT116 p53 (+/+) and HCT116 p53 (−/−) cells together with TK-Rluc vector expressing renilla luciferase under a constitutively active thymidine kinase promoter, and luciferase activity-based cell survival analysis was performed. Similar results were obtained with either of the cell lines tested, and luciferase activity of pcDNA3-Exo-mut-Flag-expressing cells was similar to that of control cells, showing that the conditions of the cells expressing Exo-mut-Flag were similar to cells without its expression (Figure 5d). On the other hand, luciferase activity was reduced to ∼40% of that of control cells in AEN-Flag-expressing cells, indicating that approximately 60% of cells co-transfected with AEN underwent cell death under the conditions tested. In addition, as shown in Figure 5d, AEN showed cell death-inducing ability in both p53-positive HCT116 p53 (+/+) cells and p53-negative HCT116 p53 (−/−) cells, indicating that this ability is independent of p53 status, consistent with the notion that AEN is a downstream mediator of p53 in apoptosis induction. Collectively, these results show that AEN induces apoptosis, and the ability is dependent on its exonuclease activity.
AEN has nuclear and nucleolar localization signals, and is predominantly localized in the nucleolus
In order to reveal the physiological function of AEN, we next analysed the subcellular localization of AEN. AEN was expressed in U2OS cells, and subcellular localization of AEN was detected with two different anti-AEN antibodies that were raised against N- or C terminus of AEN protein. Both antibodies detected similar patterns, showing that AEN is localized in the nucleus (Figure 6a). Interestingly, many large punctate signals were seen in the nucleus, indicating that AEN protein localizes predominantly in nuclear compartments. DAPI-stained cells are also shown in Figure 6a, in which dark crater-like nucleoli are surrounded by the brighter DAPI fluorescence of nucleic acid in the nucleoplasm. In the same cells, AEN is concentrated in the same area where DAPI staining is weak, demonstrating that AEN is predominantly localized in the nucleolus.
It is well known that Lys- and Arg-rich regions function as nuclear or nucleolar localization signals (Figure 6b; Jans et al., 2000; Rowland and Yoo, 2003). Since AEN was localized in the nucleus/nucleolus, we searched for nuclear and/or nucleolar localization signals in AEN, and found that AEN has an Lys- and Arg-rich region at positions aa 27–35 and 165–188 (Figure 6c). We therefore investigated whether those regions of AEN function as nuclear and/or nucleolar localization signals. Since many nucleolar localization signals are often composed of tandemly repeated basic amino acids, we speculated that aa 27–35 functions as a nucleolar localization signal, and aa 165–188 functions as a nuclear localization signal. In order to demonstrate the function of both regions, we constructed three AEN mutants (NoLS-mut, all of the Arg and Lys residues within aa 27–35 were changed to Ala; NoLS/NLS-mut, all of the Arg and Lys residues within aa 27–35 and 165–188 were changed to Ala and NLS-mut, all of the Arg and Lys residues within aa 165–188 were changed to Ala), and each AEN protein was expressed in U2OS cells (Figure 6d). As summarized in Figure 6e, subcellular localization of each AEN was analysed by immunofluorescent microscopic analysis from 300 cells. The localization of NLS-mut was similar to that of wild-type AEN, showing that aa 165–188 is not essential for nuclear and nucleolar localization signals. NoLS-mut localized in the nucleus but not in the nucleolus, showing that aa 27–35 is required for nucleolar localization, but is not essential for nuclear localization. In addition, NoLS/NLS-mut was localized in the cytoplasm, showing that nuclear and nucleolar localization signals are only present within aa 27–35 and 165–188 (Figures 6d and e). Therefore, we identified the motif 27RKRHKRKSR35 as a nuclear and nucleolar localization signal, and the other motif, 165RQHMRK-KLLKGK188, as a nuclear localization signal of AEN. Taken together, AEN has one nucleolar/nuclear localization signal and one nuclear localization signal.
AEN is translocated to the nucleoplasm from the nucleolus upon execution of apoptosis
While we have demonstrated that AEN was predominantly localized in the nucleolus (Figure 6d), a previous report demonstrated that AEN was localized in the nucleus (Lee et al., 2005). To define the precise subcellular localization of AEN, we performed a time course study of the subcellular localization of AEN using immunofluorescence microscopic analysis. Interestingly, we found that AEN changes its subcellular localization during the course of apoptosis induction. When AEN is expressed and cells are not yet undergoing apoptosis, the subcellular localization of AEN is predominantly in the nucleolus (18 h post transfection, shown in Figures 6d, e and 7a); however, when cells are undergoing apoptosis (as shown in Figure 5c), AEN is localized in the nucleoplasm but not in the nucleolus (36 h post transfection, Figures 7b and c). We also compared the subcellular localization of AEN with that of nucleophosmin (NPM). NPM is a representative nucleolar protein, frequently used as a marker of an intact nucleolus (Rubbi and Milner, 2003). As shown in Figure 7a, the localization of wild-type and Exo-mut AEN was indistinguishable from that of NPM, confirming the nucleolar localization of these proteins. On the other hand, localization of NoLS-mut did not overlap with that of NPM, again confirming that this mutant does not localize to the nucleolus. Interestingly, when wild-type or Exo-mut AEN translocates to the nucleoplasm, NPM simultaneously translocates to the nucleoplasm (Figure 7b). Since this NPM translocation was not observed in cells expressing NoLS-mut or cells transfected with an empty vector, it seems that AEN has the ability to translocate NPM, and this ability is independent of the nuclease activity of AEN. Dislocalization of NPM is a criterion for nucleolus disruption, and therefore indicates that AEN has the ability to disrupt the nucleolus.
AEN induces apoptosis in the nucleoplasm
We next investigated the significance of nucleolus localization in the function of AEN. To address this issue, the function of NoLS-mut AEN was investigated. Control empty pcDNA3, pcDNA3-AEN-Flag, pcDNA3-Exo-mut-Flag or pcDNA3-NoLS-mut-Flag vectors were transfected to U2OS and HCT116 cells, and the efficiency of cell death induction was analysed. In both cells, induction of cell death by NoLS-mut AEN was stronger than that by wild-type AEN (Figure 7d). Furthermore, we assayed the effect of each AEN on clonogenic survival when expressed continually over a period of time. Control empty pLenti6/V5-DEST, pLenti6/V5-DEST-AEN-Flag, pLenti6/V5-DEST-Exo-mut-Flag and pLenti6/V5-DEST-NoLS-mut-Flag were expressed in HCT116 and U2OS cells, and a clonogenic survival assay was performed. As shown in Figure 7e, each AEN protein was expressed at a similar level. Transfection of AEN or NoLS-mut, when compared with cells transfected with vector alone, caused a dramatic reduction in the number of colonies (Figure 7f). In addition, the expression of NoLS-mut caused further reduction in the number of colonies compared with cells transfected with wild-type AEN, confirming the result obtained by luciferase gene co-transfection cell survival analysis. On the other hand, while no effect of Exo-mut AEN on cell viability was detected by luciferase gene co-transfection cell survival analysis (Figure 7d), a certain negative effect on cell growth was detected by clonogenic survival assay (Figure 7f). We do not know how and why AEN showed a cell growth-suppressing effect independent of nuclease activity, and this is an interesting issue to be clarified in the future; however, since Exo-mut retains NPM-translocating ability, this ability may be one cause of the growth suppressive function of Exo-mut. Taken together, these results show that AEN displays its apoptosis-inducing function when dislocated from the nucleolus and released into the nucleoplasm.
We have previously shown that phosphorylation of p53 within the N-terminal transactivation domain is of great importance (Ohki et al., 2007). In particular, genes involved in apoptosis induction were shown to have a tendency to require p53 phosphorylation. The novel direct target gene of p53, AEN, also requires p53 phosphorylation for efficient induction by p53, and is a mediator of p53-dependent apoptosis.
It was reported previously that AEN is a nuclear DNA exonuclease, and functions in the enhancement of apoptosis (Lee et al., 2005); however, when the biochemical activity of AEN was analysed using various DNA and RNA substrates, we demonstrated that AEN shows exonuclease activity against both ss- and dsDNA and ss- and dsRNA. Although the physiological significance of the RNase activity of AEN is currently unknown, AEN is localized to the nucleolus where RNA biogenesis is active and RNases are engaged in RNA degradation and maturation (Houseley et al., 2006). Accordingly, AEN may act on RNA to modulate RNA synthesis upon genotoxic stresses. The involvement of AEN in the regulation of RNA species is an interesting issue to be clarified in future studies. On the other hand, our results suggest that DNase activity of AEN may be directly involved in p53-induced apoptosis. It has been reported that another exonuclease, Exonuclease-1, forms ssDNA within the cell, and play an important role in the DNA damage response (Schaetzlein et al., 2007). Similarly, when AEN was expressed in cells, it formed ssDNA. Thus, these results indicate that when AEN is induced by p53 upon DNA damage, it digests dsDNA to form ssDNA, and therefore amplifies DNA damage signals leading to the enhancement of apoptosis.
We also showed that AEN induces apoptosis by itself, and its exonuclease activity is essential for AEN-induced apoptosis. In addition, we performed a time course study of AEN localization, and found that AEN is localized in nucleolus pre-apoptosis, and released to the nucleoplasm upon apoptosis induction. It has been reported that many proteins translocate from the nucleolus to nucleoplasm upon DNA damage (Kurki et al., 2004; Mayer and Grummt, 2005). For example, p53 is localized to the nucleolus, and DNA damage markedly decreases the association of p53 with the nucleolus (Karni-Schmidt et al., 2007). Werner helicase also translocates from the nucleolus to nucleoplasm upon DNA damage, and exerts its function in the nucleoplasm (Blander et al., 2002). Thus, it seems that translocation from the nucleolus to nucleoplasm is a common mechanism to regulate the function of proteins involved in the DNA damage response.
Moreover, by analysing the localization of NPM, we found several interesting features of cells expressing AEN. We found that NPM translocates from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm simultaneously with AEN translocation. This migration of NPM was also observed in cells expressing Exo-mut, showing that the ability to translocate NPM does not require the nuclease activity of AEN. On the other hand, NPM translocation was not observed in cells expressing NoLS-mut, demonstrating that nucleolar localization is essential for NPM translocation ability. Translocation of NPM is often a criterion for nucleolus disruption, and nucleolar disruption is observed upon various cellular stresses (Rubbi and Milner, 2003; Mayer and Grummt, 2005). Our results indicate that besides exonuclease activity, AEN has another function in nucleolus disruption, and this function may also be involved in the DNA damage response downstream of p53. Accordingly, we propose the model shown in Figure 8. Upon DNA damage, AEN is first trapped in the nucleolus, but then AEN disrupts the nucleolus and is released into the nucleoplasm. Subsequently, AEN in the nucleoplasm degrades DNA and forms ssDNA, therefore amplifying the DNA damage response, leading to apoptosis induction. Although the molecular mechanism of nucleolar disruption by AEN is currently unknown, identification of AEN-associating molecules in the nucleolus or nucleoplasm may reveal the mechanism underlying this phenomenon.
In summary, AEN is a direct target gene of p53, and is an apoptosis inducer required for p53-dependent apoptosis. Since apoptosis is efficiently executed by the coordination of apoptotic nucleases, the cooperation of AEN with other nucleases is an important future issue to be clarified. Our results also suggest that AEN has a tumor-suppressive function by regulating apoptosis, and therefore analysing the involvement of AEN in tumorigenesis is also an interesting future research direction.
Materials and methods
Information for northern blotting analysis, western blotting analysis, antibodies, ChIP assay, reverse transcription (RT)–PCR, plasmids, transfection, luciferase reporter assay, flow cytometry, cell death assay, DNA fragmentation assay, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence are available as Supplementary Information on the Oncogene website.
Nuclease assay was performed by incubating nucleic acid substrates with immunoprecipitated AENs in 50 mM Hepes-KOH (pH 7.0), 5% glycerol, 50 mM NaCl, 1 mM MnCl2, 0.01% Triton and 0.1 mM DTT. After 10 h, the reactions were stopped by adding 0.1% SDS and 10 mM EDTA. Samples were run on PAG Mini DAIICHI 15/25% (Daiichi Pure Chemicals, Tokyo, Japan), and stained with SYBR green I (FMC BioProducts, Rockland, ME, USA).
Detection of single-strand DNA by nondenaturing BrdU staining
Cells were subjected to transfection with the indicated plasmids. Culture medium was changed to medium containing 10 μg ml−1 BrdU 2 h post transfection. Cells were fixed 36 h after transfection and immunostained using FITC-conjugated anti-BrdU antibody without any preceding DNA denaturation or nuclease treatment. Cells were counterstained with DAPI. The images were obtained with HS ALL-in-one Type Fluorescence Microscope BZ-9000 Series (Keyence, Osaka, Japan).
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This study was supported by the program for the promotion of Fundamental Studies in Health Sciences of the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA; to TO and HI), a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (to YT), a Grant-in-Aid for Third Term Comprehensive Control Research for Cancer from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Japan (to YT).
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Kawase, T., Ichikawa, H., Ohta, T. et al. p53 target gene AEN is a nuclear exonuclease required for p53-dependent apoptosis. Oncogene 27, 3797–3810 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1038/onc.2008.32
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