Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants

From: Eating behavior traits and sleep as determinants of weight loss in overweight and obese adults

Variables All subjects Poor sleep quality (PSQI score 5) Good sleep quality (PSQI score <5) Short sleep (<7 h per night) Recommended sleep (7 h per night)
  Mean±s.d. Mean±s.d. Mean±s.d. Mean±s.d. Mean±s.d.
Age (years) 38.8±8.6 40.3±8.8 37.8±8.3 42.1±8.0 37.6±8.6**
Sex (n)
 Men 83 38 45 34 49
 Women 67 24 43 16 51
Body weight (kg) 94.4±15.4 94.2±13.0 94.9±16.8 94.6±11.1 94.2±16.5
BMI (kg m−2) 33.3±3.5 33.2±3.8 33.6±3.4 33.3±3.3 33.4±3.6
Waist circumference (cm) 106.0±11.1 106.3±10.2 106.2±11.8 106.4±8.8 105.8±11.8
Fat mass (kg) 36.6±8.8 36.34±9.5 37.3±8.6 35.9±8.8 37.0±8.8
Delta weight (kg) −3.7±3.14 −4.5±2.8 −3.2±3.3* −4.0±2.3 −3.6±3.4
Delta fat mass (kg) −2.8±2.8 −3.6±2.2 −2.4±3.0* −3.1±2.3 −2.7±2.9
Delta waist circumference (cm) −5.0±3.5 −5.6±3.6 −4.7±3.4 −4.8±2.8 −5.0±3.7
Sleep duration (h) 7.2±0.9 6.7±0.9 7.6±0.7** 6.0±0.5 7.6±0.6**
PSQI (total score) 4.6±2.6 7.1±2.2 2.9±1.0** 6.8±2.9 3.9±2.1**
TFEQ
 Cognitive dietary restraint (0–21) 7.4±3.8 7.0±3.8 7.5±3.8 6.9±3.7 7.5±3.9
Flexible control (0–7) 2.1±1.6 1.7±1.6 2.2±1.5 1.8±1.5 2.2±1.6
Rigid control (0–7) 2.4±1.7 2.6±1.5 2.3±1.7 2.6±1.7 2.4±1.7
Strategic dieting behavior (0–4) 0.6±1.0 0.4±0.9 0.7±1.0 0.4±0.8 0.7±1.0
Attitude to self-regulation (0–5) 2.5±1.3 2.7±1.3 2.5±1.3 2.6±1.2 2.6±1.3
Avoidance of fattening foods (0–4) 2.0±1.2 1.8±1.2 2.1±1.2 1.8±1.1 2.0±1.2
 Disinhibition (0–16) 8.4±3.1 8.9±2.9 8.1±3.2 8.6±2.8 8.3±3.1
Habitual susceptibility (0–5) 1.6±1.4 1.6±1.3 1.6±1.5 1.4±1.2 1.6±1.5
Emotional susceptibility (0–3) 1.7±1.2 1.9±1.2 1.6±1.3 1.9±1.2 1.7±1.2
Situational susceptibility (0–5) 3.4±1.3 3.5±1.2 3.3±1.3 3.4±1.1 3.3±1.3
 Susceptibility to hunger (0–14) 6.1±3.4 6.7±3.2 5.7±3.4 5.7±3.1 6.2±3.4
Internal locus of hunger (0–6) 2.2±1.7 2.4±1.6 2.1±1.8 1.9±1.6 2.3±1.7
External locus of hunger (0–6) 2.8±1.6 3.1±1.7 2.6±1.6 2.7±1.6 2.8±1.7
 Energy intake (kcal per day) 2524±584 2535±536 2512±586 2631±587 2478±564
  1. Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; PSQI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; TFEQ, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire.
  2. Mean values were significantly different among sleep categories *P<0.05, **P<0.01.
  3. Analysis of comparison among sleep categories were performed using analysis of variance.