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ATPase-dependent cooperative binding of ORC and Cdc6 to origin DNA

Nature Structural & Molecular Biology volume 12, pages 965971 (2005) | Download Citation

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Abstract

Binding of Cdc6 to the origin recognition complex (ORC) is a key step in the assembly of a pre-replication complex (pre-RC) at origins of DNA replication. ORC recognizes specific origin DNA sequences in an ATP-dependent manner. Here we demonstrate cooperative binding of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc6 to ORC on DNA in an ATP-dependent manner, which induces a change in the pattern of origin binding that requires the Orc1 ATPase. The reaction is blocked by specific origin mutations that do not interfere with the interaction between ORC and DNA. Single-particle reconstruction of electron microscopic images shows that the ORC–Cdc6 complex forms a ring-shaped structure with dimensions similar to those of the ring-shaped MCM helicase. The ORC-Cdc6 structure is predicted to contain six AAA+ subunits, analogous to other ATP-dependent protein machines. We suggest that Cdc6 and origin DNA activate a molecular switch in ORC that contributes to pre-RC assembly.

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Acknowledgements

We thank A. Stenlund for comments on the manuscript, S.P. Bell for ORC mutants and P. Wendell for technical assistance. This work was supported by a grant from the US National Institutes of Health (GM45436). H.L. acknowledges support from Brookhaven National Laboratory LDRD project number 05-112 and US Department of Energy grant KP1102010. C.S. was a fellow of the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA.

    • Christian Speck
    •  & Bruce Stillman
  2. Brookhaven National Laboratory, PO Box 5000, Upton, New York 11973-5000, USA.

    • Zhiqiang Chen
    •  & Huilin Li

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Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bruce Stillman.

Supplementary information

PDF files

  1. 1.

    Supplementary Fig. 1

    Extended footprint formation is salt sensitive at low ORC concentrations.

  2. 2.

    Supplementary Fig. 2

    Gel-shift assay of P32 labeled ARS1 DNA with ORC and Cdc6.

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    Supplementary Fig. 3

    ATP and ADP dependent footprint of ORC

  4. 4.

    Supplementary Fig. 4

    Gel-shift assay with ORC and Cdc6 in the presence of ATP, ATPγS or ADP.

  5. 5.

    Supplementary Fig. 5

    DNase I footprint with ORC and Cdc6 in the presence of 1 mM ADP.

  6. 6.

    Supplementary Fig. 6

    DNase I footprint with ORC and Cdc6 with ATP and ATPγS.

  7. 7.

    Supplementary Fig. 7

    ORC-Cdc6 interaction analyzed by glycerol gradient sedimentation in the presence of ADP.

  8. 8.

    Supplementary Fig. 8

    Superposition of the ORC map with the ORC-Cdc6 map.

  9. 9.

    Supplementary Methods

  10. 10.

    Supplementary References

Videos

  1. 1.

    Supplementary Video 1

    Three-dimensional structures of the yeast ORC in the presence of ATPγS, as described in Figure 4.

  2. 2.

    Supplementary Video 2

    Three-dimensional structures of the yeast ORC-Cdc6 complex in the presence of ATPγS.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nsmb1002

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