Paraneoplasias are caused by soluble factors produced by tumour cells or are the consequence of an immune reaction against these cells
An underlying malignancy should be sought if musculoskeletal symptoms do not show an adequate response to therapy
Arthritis, myositis, periostitis, fasciitis and osteomalacia can all be musculoskeletal manifestations of a paraneoplastic disease
Due to the properties of soluble factors produced by tumour cells, some paraneoplasias show a characteristic involvement of specific musculoskeletal tissues (e.g. VEGF inducing HOA or FGF23 inducing TIO)
Despite their rarity, knowledge of distinct clinical patterns of paraneoplasias is essential for the rheumatologist, because their recognition allows for a timely diagnosis and potentially life-saving therapy
The dissection of underlying molecular mechanisms can provide insights in the pathogenesis for rheumatic as well as neoplastic diseases
For patients that present with musculoskeletal symptoms, diagnostic procedures carried out by physicians and rheumatologists are primarily aimed at confirming or excluding the occurrence of primary rheumatic diseases. Another important trigger for musculoskeletal disease, however, is the presence of a tumour. Careful clinical investigation and knowledge of the gestalt of musculoskeletal syndromes related to respective tumour entities is of utmost importance for the diagnosis of paraneoplastic rheumatic diseases such as hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, paraneoplastic polyarthritis, RS3PE syndrome, palmar fasciitis and polyarthritis, cancer-associated myositis and tumour-induced osteomalacia. This places great responsibility on rheumatologists in diagnosing malignancies and referring the patient for effective treatment. The selective influence of tumours on musculoskeletal tissue is surprising and indicates that tumours alter tissues such as the periosteum, synovial membrane, subcutaneous connective tissue, fascia, muscles and bones by specific molecular processes. Some of the underlying mechanisms have been unravelled, providing valuable information on the physiologic and pathophysiologic roles of mediators such as vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 23.
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Manger, B., Schett, G. Paraneoplastic syndromes in rheumatology. Nat Rev Rheumatol 10, 662–670 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrrheum.2014.138
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