Year in Review | Published:

Multiple sclerosis in 2016

Immune-directed therapies in MS — efficacy and limitations

Nature Reviews Neurology volume 13, pages 7274 (2017) | Download Citation

In 2016, new highly active treatment options for relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) emerged. At the same time, large clinical trials in progressive MS highlighted the limitations of immune-directed therapies, and called for new strategies to treat disease progression in MS.

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B.H. and M.M. were supported by the German Competence Network Multiple Sclerosis' (German Ministry for Research and Education). B.H. was supported by the Transregional Collaborative Research Center (CRC) SFB TR-128, and M.M. by the Hertie Foundation.

Author information


  1. Bernhard Hemmer is at the Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich, Germany and affiliated with the Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy).

    • Bernhard Hemmer
  2. Mark Mühlau is at the Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich, Germany and affiliated with the TUM-Neuroimaging Center (TUM-NIC).

    • Mark Mühlau


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Competing interests

B.H. has served on scientific advisory boards for Novartis, Bayer Schering, F. Hoffmann-La Roche, AllergyCare and Genentech. He has received honoraria for lectures from Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Biogen Idec, Medimmune, Merck Serono and F. Hoffmann-La Roche, and has received research support from Chugai Pharmaceuticals and F. Hoffmann-La Roche. He has filed two patents, one for the detection of antibodies and T cells against KIR4.1 in a subpopulation of multiple sclerosis patients, and one for genetic determinants of neutralizing antibodies to IFNβ. M.M. has received research support from Merck Serono and Novartis.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bernhard Hemmer.

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