In 2016, new highly active treatment options for relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) emerged. At the same time, large clinical trials in progressive MS highlighted the limitations of immune-directed therapies, and called for new strategies to treat disease progression in MS.
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B.H. and M.M. were supported by the German Competence Network Multiple Sclerosis' (German Ministry for Research and Education). B.H. was supported by the Transregional Collaborative Research Center (CRC) SFB TR-128, and M.M. by the Hertie Foundation.
B.H. has served on scientific advisory boards for Novartis, Bayer Schering, F. Hoffmann-La Roche, AllergyCare and Genentech. He has received honoraria for lectures from Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Biogen Idec, Medimmune, Merck Serono and F. Hoffmann-La Roche, and has received research support from Chugai Pharmaceuticals and F. Hoffmann-La Roche. He has filed two patents, one for the detection of antibodies and T cells against KIR4.1 in a subpopulation of multiple sclerosis patients, and one for genetic determinants of neutralizing antibodies to IFNβ. M.M. has received research support from Merck Serono and Novartis.
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Hemmer, B., Mühlau, M. Immune-directed therapies in MS — efficacy and limitations. Nat Rev Neurol 13, 72–74 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrneurol.2017.2
Nature Reviews Immunology (2022)