Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Multiple sclerosis

Fingolimod failure in progressive MS INFORMS future trials

Fingolimod is approved for the treatment of relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), and evidence suggests that it has neuroprotective effects. The recent INFORMS phase III trial in primary progressive MS demonstrated no beneficial effects of fingolimod on disability progression or whole-brain atrophy, but provides important information for future therapeutic development.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. 1

    Lublin, F. et al. Oral fingolimod in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (INFORMS): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 387, 12–18 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Mahad, D. H., Trapp, B. D. & Lassmann, H. Pathological mechanisms in progressive multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol. 14, 183–193 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Wolinsky, J. S. et al. Glatiramer acetate in primary progressive multiple sclerosis: results of a multinational, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann. Neurol. 61, 14–24 (2007).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Hawker, K. et al. Rituximab in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis: results of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Ann. Neurol. 66, 460–471 (2009).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Ontaneda, D., Fox, R. J. & Chataway, J. Clinical trials in progressive multiple sclerosis: lessons learned and future perspectives. Lancet Neurol. 14, 208–223 (2015).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Montalban, X. et al. Efficacy and safety of ocrelizumab in primary progressive multiple sclerosis — results of the placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase III ORATORIO study (abstract 228). Mult. Scler. 23 (Suppl. 11), 780–781 (2015).

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Cohen, J. A. & Chun, J. Mechanisms of fingolimod's efficacy and adverse effects in multiple sclerosis. Ann. Neurol. 69, 759–777 (2011).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Cohen, J. A. et al. Oral fingolimod or intramuscular interferon for relapsing multiple sclerosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 362, 402–415 (2010).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Kappos, L. et al. Oral fingolimod (FTY720) for relapsing multiple sclerosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 355, 1124–1140 (2006).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Calabresi, P. A. et al. Safety and efficacy of fingolimod in patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (FREEDOMS II): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Neurol. 13, 545–556 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


A.L.S. is supported by a National Multiple Sclerosis Society Sylvia Lawry Physician Fellowship Award (FP 17117-A-2).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jeffrey A. Cohen.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

A.L.S. has received speaking fees from Genzyme. J.A.C. has received personal compensation for consulting for Genentech, Genzyme, Novartis and Receptos, and speaking fees from Teva.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Smith, A., Cohen, J. Fingolimod failure in progressive MS INFORMS future trials. Nat Rev Neurol 12, 253–254 (2016).

Download citation

Further reading


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing