New data indicate a long-term beneficial effect of reduced sodium intake on mortality. Among the participants of the phase I (n = 744) and phase II (n = 2,382) TOHP sodium reduction trials, the risk of death during a median post-trial period of 24 years was 15% lower in the intervention group than in the control group. The analysis showed a direct linear relationship between average sodium intake and total mortality, even at the lowest sodium levels. The TOHP trials used well-characterized measures of sodium intake estimated from urinary sodium excretion.