Review Article | Published:

Effects of dietary interventions on incidence and progression of CKD

Nature Reviews Nephrology volume 10, pages 712724 (2014) | Download Citation

Abstract

Traditional strategies for management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not resulted in any change in the growing prevalence of CKD worldwide. A historic belief that eating healthily might ameliorate kidney disease still holds credibility in the 21st century. Dietary sodium restriction to <2.3 g daily, a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and increased water consumption corresponding to a urine output of 3–4 l daily might slow the progression of early CKD, polycystic kidney disease or recurrent kidney stones. Current evidence suggests that a reduction in dietary net acid load could be beneficial in patients with CKD, but the supremacy of any particular diet has yet to be established. More trials of dietary interventions are needed, especially in diabetic nephropathy, before evidence-based recommendations can be made. In the meantime, nephrologists should discuss healthy dietary habits with their patients and provide individualized care aimed at maximizing the potential benefits of dietary intervention, reducing the incidence of CKD and delaying its progression to end-stage renal disease. Keeping in mind the lack of data on hard outcomes, dietary recommendations should take into account barriers to adherence and be tailored to different cultures, ethnicities and geographical locations.

Key points

  • Dietary sodium restriction reduces proteinuria and lowers blood pressure in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, an effect on hard clinical outcomes remains to be established

  • Dietary sodium restriction to <2.3 g daily is suggested for patients with CKD

  • Diets rich in certain fruits and vegetables should be considered to ameliorate metabolic abnormalities in patients with CKD and potentially delay its progression

  • Moderate alcohol consumption (≤2 beverages or <20 g daily) has no proven beneficial or adverse effects in patients with CKD

  • Daily fluid intake to generate a daily urine output of >3 l might be considered in patients with CKD, especially those with polycystic kidney disease or recurrent kidney stones

  • Randomized controlled trials are needed to ascertain the optimum dietary recommendations for patients with CKD

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Affiliations

  1. Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390-8856, USA.

    • Nishank Jain
  2. Division of Nephrology, Medical Service, Veterans Affairs North Texas Health Care System, Nephrology Section, MC 111G1, 4500 South Lancaster Road, Dallas, TX 75216-7167, USA.

    • Robert F. Reilly

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Contributions

Both authors contributed equally to researching the data for the article, discussion of its content, writing the article and review and/or editing of the manuscript before submission.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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Correspondence to Robert F. Reilly.

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https://doi.org/10.1038/nrneph.2014.192

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