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The original description of constraint-induced movement therapy, which has been shown to be perhaps the most effective method for producing functional gains months or years after the initial stroke injury.
Taub, E., Uswatte, G., Mark, V. W. & Morris, D. M. The learned nonuse phenomenon: implications for rehabilitation. Eura Medicophys. 42, 241–256 (2006).
Feeney, D. M., Gonzalez, A. & Law, W. A. Amphetamine, haloperidol, and experience interact to affect rate of recovery after motor cortex injury. Science 217, 855–857 (1982).
Gladstone, D. J. & Black, S. E. Enhancing recovery after stroke with noradrenergic pharmacotherapy: a new frontier? Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 27, 97–105 (2000).
Lim, D. H., Alaverdashvili, M. & Whishaw, I. Q. Nicotine does not improve recovery from learned nonuse nor enhance constraint-induced therapy after motor cortex stroke in the rat. Behav. Brain Res. 198, 411–419 (2009).
Ramón y Cajal, S. Textura Del Sistema Nervioso Del Hombre Y De Los Vertebrados: Estudios Sobre El Plan Estructural Y Composición Histológica De Los Centros Nerviosos Adicionados De Consideraciones Fisiológicas Fundadas En Los Nuevos Descubrimentos (Moya, Madrid, 1899) (in Spanish).
Ramón y Cajal, S., Pasik, P. & Pasik, T. Texture Of The Nervous System Of Man And The Vertebrates (Springer, New York, 1999).
Chen, B. L., Hall, D. H. & Chklovskii, D. B. Wiring optimization can relate neuronal structure and function. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 4723–4728 (2006).
Dijkhuizen, R. M. et al. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of reorganization in rat brain after stroke. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 98, 12766–12771 (2001).
Wade, D. T., Langton-Hewer, R., Wood, V. A., Skilbeck, C. E. & Ismail, H. M. The hemiplegic arm after stroke: measurement and recovery. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 46, 521–524 (1983).
Grabowski, M., Brundin, P. & Johansson, B. B. Paw-reaching, sensorimotor, and rotational behavior after brain infarction in rats. Stroke 24, 889–895 (1993).
Maulden, S. A., Gassaway, J., Horn, S. D., Smout, R. J. & DeJong, G. Timing of initiation of rehabilitation after stroke. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 86, S34–S40 (2005).
Brown, C. E., Wong, C. & Murphy, T. H. Rapid morphologic plasticity of peri-infarct dendritic spines after focal ischemic stroke. Stroke 39, 1286–1291 (2008).
Carmichael, S. T. Gene expression changes after focal stroke, traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries. Curr. Opin. Neurol. 16, 699–704 (2003).
Reinecke, S., Dinse, H. R., Reinke, H. & Witte, O. W. Induction of bilateral plasticity in sensory cortical maps by small unilateral cortical infarcts in rats. Eur. J. Neurosci. 17, 623–627 (2003).
Takatsuru, Y. et al. Neuronal circuit remodeling in the contralateral cortical hemisphere during functional recovery from cerebral infarction. J. Neurosci. 29, 10081–10086 (2009).
Li, S. & Carmichael, S. T. Growth-associated gene and protein expression in the region of axonal sprouting in the aged brain after stroke. Neurobiol. Dis. 23, 362–373 (2006).
Provides evidence that axonal growth programmes are initiated in the aged rodent brain after stroke. This study also provides a comprehensive list of changes in gene expression and suggests parallels to development.