Resilient individuals demonstrate adaptive psychological and physiological stress responses to acute stress, trauma or more chronic forms of adversity.
Resilience is an active process, not simply the absence of changes induced by stress.
Examining stress responses at multiple phenotypic levels can help to delineate an integrative model of resilience.
Positive emotions and cognitive reappraisal promote adaptive coping strategies and resilience.
Complex interactions between an individual's genetic make-up and their history of exposure to environmental stressors influence the adaptability of stress response systems and neural circuitry function.
Progress is being made in identifying the neural circuits in the brain that mediate resilience.
Recent work has begun to identify specific changes in gene expression and chromatin remodelling (that is, epigenetic adaptations) that underlie resilience.
Every individual experiences stressful life events. In some cases acute or chronic stress leads to depression and other psychiatric disorders, but most people are resilient to such effects. Recent research has begun to identify the environmental, genetic, epigenetic and neural mechanisms that underlie resilience, and has shown that resilience is mediated by adaptive changes in several neural circuits involving numerous neurotransmitter and molecular pathways. These changes shape the functioning of the neural circuits that regulate reward, fear, emotion reactivity and social behaviour, which together are thought to mediate successful coping with stress.
This is a preview of subscription content
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $4.92 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Rutter, M. Implications of resilience concepts for scientific understanding. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1094, 1–12 (2006).
McEwen, B. S. Mood disorders and allostatic load. Biol. Psychiatry 54, 200–207 (2003).
Charney, D. S. Psychobiological mechanisms of resilience and vulnerability: implications for successful adaptation to extreme stress. Am. J. Psychiatry 161, 195–216 (2004). In this review, the author presents a psychobiological model of resilience and vulnerability to extreme stress and reviews neurochemical, neuropeptide, hormonal and neural mechanisms associated with resilience.
Masten, A. S. Ordinary magic. Resilience processes in development. Am. Psychol. 56, 227–238 (2001).
Masten, A. S. & Coatsworth, J. D. The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments. Lessons from research on successful children. Am. Psychol. 53, 205–220 (1998).
Rutter, M. Resilience in the face of adversity. Protective factors and resistance to psychiatric disorder. Br. J. Psychiatry 147, 598–611 (1985).
Bonanno, G. A. Loss, trauma, and human resilience: have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? Am. Psychol. 59, 20–28 (2004).
Alim, T. N. et al. Trauma, resilience, and recovery in a high-risk African-American population. Am. J. Psychiatry 165, 1566–1575 (2008). This study identifies psychosocial factors associated with resilience and recovery from psychiatric disorders in a sample of African-American adults exposed to severe trauma.
Cicchetti, D. & Blender, J. A. A multiple-levels-of-analysis perspective on resilience: implications for the developing brain, neural plasticity, and preventive interventions. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1094, 248–258 (2006).
Hasler, G., Drevets, W. C., Manji, H. K. & Charney, D. S. Discovering endophenotypes for major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology 29, 1765–1781 (2004).
Zhou, Z. et al. Genetic variation in human NPY expression affects stress response and emotion. Nature 452, 997–1001 (2008).
Krishnan, V. & Nestler, E. J. The molecular neurobiology of depression. Nature 455, 894–902 (2008).
Southwick, S. M., Vythilingam, M. & Charney, D. S. The psychobiology of depression and resilience to stress: implications for prevention and treatment. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 1, 255–291 (2005).
Carver, C. S. You want to measure coping but your protocol's too long: consider the brief COPE. Int. J. Behav. Med. 4, 92–100 (1997).
Ong, A. D., Bergeman, C. S., Bisconti, T. L. & Wallace, K. A. Psychological resilience, positive emotions, and successful adaptation to stress in later life. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 91, 730–749 (2006).
Tugade, M. M. & Fredrickson, B. L. Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 86, 320–333 (2004).
Fredrickson, B. L. The role of positive emotions in positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Am. Psychol. 56, 218–226 (2001).
Ryff, C. D. & Keyes, C. L. The structure of psychological well-being revisited. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 69, 719–727 (1995).
Pargament, K. I., Smith, B. W., Koenig, H. G. & Perez, L. Patterns of positive and negative religious coping with major life stressors. J. Sci. Study Relig. 37, 710–724 (1998).
Heim, C. & Nemeroff, C. B. The role of childhood trauma in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders: preclinical and clinical studies. Biol. Psychiatry 49, 1023–1039 (2001).
Karlamangla, A. S., Singer, B. H., McEwen, B. S., Rowe, J. W. & Seeman, T. E. Allostatic load as a predictor of functional decline. MacArthur studies of successful aging. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 55, 696–710 (2002).
McEwen, B. S. & Milner, T. A. Hippocampal formation: shedding light on the influence of sex and stress on the brain. Brain Res. Rev. 55, 343–355 (2007).
Brown, E. S., Woolston, D. J. & Frol, A. B. Amygdala volume in patients receiving chronic corticosteroid therapy. Biol. Psychiatry 63, 705–709 (2008).
de Kloet, E. R., Joels, M. & Holsboer, F. Stress and the brain: from adaptation to disease. Nature Rev. Neurosci. 6, 463–475 (2005). This excellent review summarizes reciprocal interactions between limbic networks and the HPA axis and describes how imbalances in mineralocorticoid and GR signalling can increase vulnerability for mental illness.
de Kloet, E. R., Derijk, R. H. & Meijer, O. C. Therapy insight: is there an imbalanced response of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors in depression? Nature Clin. Pract. Endocrinol. Metab. 3, 168–179 (2007).
Lu, A. et al. Conditional mouse mutants highlight mechanisms of corticotropin-releasing hormone effects on stress-coping behavior. Mol. Psychiatry 13, 1028–1042 (2008).
Korte, S. M., Koolhaas, J. M., Wingfield, J. C. & McEwen, B. S. The Darwinian concept of stress: benefits of allostasis and costs of allostatic load and the trade-offs in health and disease. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 29, 3–38 (2005).
Morgan, C. A. et al. Relationships among plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cortisol levels, symptoms of dissociation, and objective performance in humans exposed to acute stress. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 61, 819–825 (2004). Results from this study of soldiers enrolled in military survival training indicate that the DHEA sulfate/cortisol ratio might correlate with an individual's degree of stress resilience.
Yehuda, R., Brand, S. R., Golier, J. A. & Yang, R. K. Clinical correlates of DHEA associated with post-traumatic stress disorder. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 114, 187–193 (2006).
Dubrovsky, B. O. Steroids, neuroactive steroids and neurosteroids in psychopathology. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 29, 169–192 (2005).
Charney, D. S. Neuroanatomical circuits modulating fear and anxiety behaviors. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. Suppl. 38–50 (2003).
McGaugh, J. L. The amygdala modulates the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing experiences. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 27, 1–28 (2004).
Sajdyk, T. J., Shekhar, A. & Gehlert, D. R. Interactions between NPY and CRF in the amygdala to regulate emotionality. Neuropeptides 38, 225–234 (2004).
Morgan, C. A. et al. Plasma neuropeptide-Y concentrations in humans exposed to military survival training. Biol. Psychiatry 47, 902–909 (2000).
Yehuda, R., Brand, S. & Yang, R. K. Plasma neuropeptide Y concentrations in combat exposed veterans: relationship to trauma exposure, recovery from PTSD, and coping. Biol. Psychiatry 59, 660–663 (2006). The authors report higher plasma NPY levels in trauma-exposed veterans without PTSD and in veterans showing recovery from PTSD than in veterans with PTSD, suggesting a relationship between NPY and resistance to or recovery after trauma exposure.
Gutman, A. R., Yang, Y., Ressler, K. J. & Davis, M. The role of neuropeptide Y in the expression and extinction of fear-potentiated startle. J. Neurosci. 28, 12682–12690 (2008).
Sajdyk, T. J. et al. Neuropeptide Y in the amygdala induces long-term resilience to stress-induced reductions in social responses but not hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis activity or hyperthermia. J. Neurosci. 28, 893–903 (2008).
Duman, R. S. & Monteggia, L. M. A neurotrophic model for stress-related mood disorders. Biol. Psychiatry 59, 1116–1127 (2006).
Eisch, A. J. et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the ventral midbrain-nucleus accumbens pathway: a role in depression. Biol. Psychiatry 54, 994–1005 (2003).
Berton, O. et al. Essential role of BDNF in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway in social defeat stress. Science 311, 864–868 (2006).
Krishnan, V. et al. Molecular adaptations underlying susceptibility and resistance to social defeat in brain reward regions. Cell 131, 391–404 (2007). Using the social defeat paradigm in mice, the authors demonstrate that a subset of inbred C57Bl/56J mice are resilient to many of the deleterious effects of the stress and identify some of the underlying molecular mechanisms.
Bradley, R. G. et al. Influence of child abuse on adult depression: moderation by the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 65, 190–200 (2008). This study in two independent populations finds that polymorphisms and haplotypes of the CRH gene moderate the influence of child abuse on depressive symptoms in adulthood.
Derijk, R. H. & de Kloet, E. R. Corticosteroid receptor polymorphisms: determinants of vulnerability and resilience. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 583, 303–311 (2008).
Binder, E. B. et al. Association of FKBP5 polymorphisms and childhood abuse with risk of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in adults. JAMA 299, 1291–1305 (2008). The authors report a gene–environment interaction between four SNPs of the stress-related FKBP5 gene and severity of child abuse that predicts adult PTSD symptoms.
Ising, M. et al. Polymorphisms in the FKBP5 gene region modulate recovery from psychosocial stress in healthy controls. Eur. J. Neurosci. 28, 389–398 (2008).
Caspi, A. et al. Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science 301, 386–389 (2003).
Kendler, K. S., Kuhn, J. W., Vittum, J., Prescott, C. A. & Riley, B. The interaction of stressful life events and a serotonin transporter polymorphism in the prediction of episodes of major depression: a replication. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 62, 529–535 (2005).
Gillespie, N. A., Whitfield, J. B., Williams, B., Heath, A. C. & Martin, N. G. The relationship between stressful life events, the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) genotype and major depression. Psychol. Med. 35, 101–111 (2005).
Munafo, M. R., Durrant, C., Lewis, G. & Flint, J. Gene X environment interactions at the serotonin transporter locus. Biol. Psychiatry 65, 211–219 (2009).
Hariri, A. R. et al. A susceptibility gene for affective disorders and the response of the human amygdala. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 62, 146–152 (2005).
Pezawas, L. et al. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism impacts human cingulate-amygdala interactions: a genetic susceptibility mechanism for depression. Nature Neurosci. 8, 828–834 (2005).
Munafo, M. R., Brown, S. M. & Hariri, A. R. Serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) genotype and amygdala activation: a meta-analysis. Biol. Psychiatry 63, 852–857 (2008).
Stein, M. B., Campbell-Sills, L. & Gelernter, J. Genetic variation in 5HTTLPR is associated with emotional resilience. Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 16 Jan 2009 (doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.30916).
Heinz, A. & Smolka, M. N. The effects of catechol O-methyltransferase genotype on brain activation elicited by affective stimuli and cognitive tasks. Rev. Neurosci. 17, 359–367 (2006).
Schmack, K. et al. Catechol-O-methyltransferase val158 met genotype influences neural processing of reward anticipation. Neuroimage 42, 1631–1638 (2008).
Chen, Z. Y. et al. Genetic variant BDNF (Val66Met) polymorphism alters anxiety-related behavior. Science 314, 140–143 (2006). The authors generated mice that duplicate the Val66Met polymorphism in the BDNF gene seen in humans, and demonstrate differences in emotional behaviour and other behavioural domains.
Egan, M. F. et al. The BDNF val66met polymorphism affects activity-dependent secretion of BDNF and human memory and hippocampal function. Cell 112, 257–269 (2003).
Jabbi, M. et al. Convergent genetic modulation of the endocrine stress response involves polymorphic variations of 5-HTT, COMT and MAOA. Mol. Psychiatry 12, 483–490 (2007).
Mandelli, L. et al. Interaction between serotonin transporter gene, catechol-O-methyltransferase gene and stressful life events in mood disorders. Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol. 10, 437–447 (2007).
Smolka, M. N. et al. Gene-gene effects on central processing of aversive stimuli. Mol. Psychiatry 12, 307–317 (2007).
Kaufman, J. et al. Social supports and serotonin transporter gene moderate depression in maltreated children. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 101, 17316–17321 (2004).
Kim, J. M. et al. Interactions between life stressors and susceptibility genes (5-HTTLPR and BDNF) on depression in Korean elders. Biol. Psychiatry 62, 423–428 (2007).
Kaufman, J. et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor-5-HTTLPR gene interactions and environmental modifiers of depression in children. Biol. Psychiatry 59, 673–680 (2006).
Tsankova, N., Renthal, W., Kumar, A. & Nestler, E. J. Epigenetic regulation in psychiatric disorders. Nature Rev. Neurosci. 8, 355–367 (2007).
Meaney, M. J. & Szyf, M. Environmental programming of stress responses through DNA methylation: life at the interface between a dynamic environment and a fixed genome. Dialogues Clin. Neurosci. 7, 103–123 (2005). This review summarizes the authors' elegant work in rats, which has demonstrated a role for methylation of the GR gene in the hippocampus in mediating life-long effects of maternal care on an individual's behaviour.
Weaver, I. C. et al. Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior. Nature Neurosci. 7, 847–854 (2004).
Krishnan, V. et al. AKT signaling within the ventral tegmental area regulates cellular and behavioral responses to stressful stimuli. Biol. Psychiatry 64, 691–700 (2008).
Berton, O. et al. Induction of ΔFosB in the periaqueductal gray by stress promotes active coping responses. Neuron 55, 289–300 (2007). The authors demonstrate that induction of the transcription factor FOSB in the periaqueductal grey is a mechanism of resilience: such induction, partly through the regulation of substance P neurotransmission, promotes adaptive responses to stress.
Bandler, R. & Shipley, M. T. Columnar organization in the midbrain periaqueductal gray: modules for emotional expression? Trends Neurosci. 17, 379–389 (1994).
Ulrich-Lai, Y. M. & Herman, J. P. Neural regulation of endocrine and autonomic stress responses. Nature Rev. Neurosci. 13 May 2009 (doi:10.1038/nrn2647).
Dedovic, K. et al. The Montreal Imaging Stress Task: using functional imaging to investigate the effects of perceiving and processing psychosocial stress in the human brain. J. Psychiatry Neurosci. 30, 319–325 (2005).
Rauch, S. L., Shin, L. M. & Phelps, E. A. Neurocircuitry models of posttraumatic stress disorder and extinction: human neuroimaging research--past, present, and future. Biol. Psychiatry 60, 376–382 (2006).
Yehuda, R. & LeDoux, J. Response variation following trauma: a translational neuroscience approach to understanding PTSD. Neuron 56, 19–32 (2007).
Delgado, M. R., Olsson, A. & Phelps, E. A. Extending animal models of fear conditioning to humans. Biol. Psychol. 73, 39–48 (2006).
Milad, M. R. et al. Thickness of ventromedial prefrontal cortex in humans is correlated with extinction memory. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 102, 10706–10711 (2005).
Schiller, D., Levy, I., Niv, Y., LeDoux, J. E. & Phelps, E. A. From fear to safety and back: reversal of fear in the human brain. J. Neurosci. 28, 11517–11525 (2008).
Delgado, M. R., Nearing, K. I., Ledoux, J. E. & Phelps, E. A. Neural circuitry underlying the regulation of conditioned fear and its relation to extinction. Neuron 59, 829–838 (2008).
Liberzon, I. & Sripada, C. S. The functional neuroanatomy of PTSD: a critical review. Prog. Brain Res. 167, 151–169 (2008).
Felmingham, K. et al. Changes in anterior cingulate and amygdala after cognitive behavior therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychol. Sci. 18, 127–129 (2007).
Davis, M. & Whalen, P. J. The amygdala: vigilance and emotion. Mol. Psychiatry 6, 13–34 (2001).
Everitt, B. J., Cardinal, R. N., Parkinson, J. A. & Robbins, T. W. Appetitive behavior: impact of amygdala-dependent mechanisms of emotional learning. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 985, 233–250 (2003).
Bast, T. Toward an integrative perspective on hippocampal function: from the rapid encoding of experience to adaptive behavior. Rev. Neurosci. 18, 253–281 (2007).
Pollak, D. D. et al. An animal model of a behavioral intervention for depression. Neuron 60, 149–161 (2008).
Roozendaal, B., Schelling, G. & McGaugh, J. L. Corticotropin-releasing factor in the basolateral amygdala enhances memory consolidation via an interaction with the β-adrenoceptor-cAMP pathway: dependence on glucocorticoid receptor activation. J. Neurosci. 28, 6642–6651 (2008).
Davis, M. & Myers, K. M. The role of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid in fear extinction: clinical implications for exposure therapy. Biol. Psychiatry 52, 998–1007 (2002).
Davis, M., Ressler, K., Rothbaum, B. O. & Richardson, R. Effects of D-cycloserine on extinction: translation from preclinical to clinical work. Biol. Psychiatry 60, 369–375 (2006). This is an elegant example of applying basic research in animals to early clinical trials, in which the authors demonstrate the ability of an NMDA receptor partial allosteric agonist to promote extinction.
Stein, M. B., Kerridge, C., Dimsdale, J. E. & Hoyt, D. B. Pharmacotherapy to prevent PTSD: results from a randomized controlled proof-of-concept trial in physically injured patients. J. Trauma. Stress 20, 923–932 (2007).
Cai, W. H., Blundell, J., Han, J., Greene, R. W. & Powell, C. M. Postreactivation glucocorticoids impair recall of established fear memory. J. Neurosci. 26, 9560–9566 (2006).
Pizzagalli, D. A. et al. Reduced caudate and nucleus accumbens response to rewards in unmedicated subjects with major depressive disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry 1 May 2009 (doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08081201).
Sailer, U. et al. Altered reward processing in the nucleus accumbens and mesial prefrontal cortex of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Neuropsychologia 46, 2836–2844 (2008).
Drevets, W. C., Price, J. L. & Furey, M. L. Brain structural and functional abnormalities in mood disorders: implications for neurocircuitry models of depression. Brain Struct. Funct. 213, 93–118 (2008).
Forbes, E. E. et al. Altered striatal activation predicting real-world positive affect in adolescent major depressive disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry 166, 64–73 (2009). This fMRI study links altered striatal response to monetary reward in depressed adolescents with reports of lower subjective positive affect in natural environments.
Monk, C. S. et al. Amygdala and nucleus accumbens activation to emotional facial expressions in children and adolescents at risk for major depression. Am. J. Psychiatry 165, 90–98 (2008).
Sharot, T., Riccardi, A. M., Raio, C. M. & Phelps, E. A. Neural mechanisms mediating optimism bias. Nature 450, 102–105 (2007).
Vythilingam, M. et al. Reward circuitry in resilience to severe trauma: an fMRI investigation of resilient special forces soldiers. Psychiatry Res. 172, 75–77 (2009).
Siegrist, J. et al. Differential brain activation according to chronic social reward frustration. Neuroreport 16, 1899–1903 (2005).
Hyman, S. E., Malenka, R. C. & Nestler, E. J. Neural mechanisms of addiction: the role of reward-related learning and memory. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 29, 565–598 (2006).
Nestler, E. J. & Carlezon, W. A. Jr. The mesolimbic dopamine reward circuit in depression. Biol. Psychiatry 59, 1151–1159 (2006).
Johnstone, T., van Reekum, C. M., Urry, H. L., Kalin, N. H. & Davidson, R. J. Failure to regulate: counterproductive recruitment of top-down prefrontal-subcortical circuitry in major depression. J. Neurosci. 27, 8877–8884 (2007). In this fMRI study, the authors demonstrate abnormalities in top-down regulation of the amygdala by the PFC in depressed individuals.
Phillips, M. L., Drevets, W. C., Rauch, S. L. & Lane, R. Neurobiology of emotion perception I: the neural basis of normal emotion perception. Biol. Psychiatry 54, 504–514 (2003).
Phillips, M. L., Drevets, W. C., Rauch, S. L. & Lane, R. Neurobiology of emotion perception II: implications for major psychiatric disorders. Biol. Psychiatry 54, 515–528 (2003).
Ressler, K. J. & Mayberg, H. S. Targeting abnormal neural circuits in mood and anxiety disorders: from the laboratory to the clinic. Nature Neurosci. 10, 1116–1124 (2007).
Drabant, E. M. et al. Catechol O-methyltransferase val158 met genotype and neural mechanisms related to affective arousal and regulation. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 63, 1396–1406 (2006).
Hariri, A. R. et al. Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala. Science 297, 400–403 (2002).
van der Veen, F. M., Evers, E. A., Deutz, N. E. & Schmitt, J. A. Effects of acute tryptophan depletion on mood and facial emotion perception related brain activation and performance in healthy women with and without a family history of depression. Neuropsychopharmacology 32, 216–224 (2007).
Goldin, P. R., McRae, K., Ramel, W. & Gross, J. J. The neural bases of emotion regulation: reappraisal and suppression of negative emotion. Biol. Psychiatry 63, 577–586 (2008).
Ochsner, K. N. et al. For better or for worse: neural systems supporting the cognitive down- and up-regulation of negative emotion. Neuroimage 23, 483–499 (2004).
Wager, T. D., Davidson, M. L., Hughes, B. L., Lindquist, M. A. & Ochsner, K. N. Prefrontal-subcortical pathways mediating successful emotion regulation. Neuron 59, 1037–1050 (2008).
Drabant, E. M., McRae, K., Manuck, S. B., Hariri, A. R. & Gross, J. J. Individual differences in typical reappraisal use predict amygdala and prefrontal responses. Biol. Psychiatry 65, 367–373 (2009).
New, A. S. et al. An fMRI study of deliberate emotion regulation in PTSD and resilience. Biol. Psychiatry (in the press).
Iarocci, G., Yager, J. & Elfers, T. What gene-environment interactions can tell us about social competence in typical and atypical populations. Brain Cogn. 65, 112–127 (2007).
Schulte-Ruther, M., Markowitsch, H. J., Fink, G. R. & Piefke, M. Mirror neuron and theory of mind mechanisms involved in face-to-face interactions: a functional magnetic resonance imaging approach to empathy. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 19, 1354–1372 (2007).
Rizzolatti, G. & Craighero, L. The mirror-neuron system. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 27, 169–192 (2004).
Pfeifer, J. H., Iacoboni, M., Mazziotta, J. C. & Dapretto, M. Mirroring others' emotions relates to empathy and interpersonal competence in children. Neuroimage 39, 2076–2085 (2008).
Domes, G., Heinrichs, M., Michel, A., Berger, C. & Herpertz, S. C. Oxytocin improves “mind-reading” in humans. Biol. Psychiatry 61, 731–733 (2007).
Kosfeld, M., Heinrichs, M., Zak, P. J., Fischbacher, U. & Fehr, E. Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature 435, 673–676 (2005).
Rilling, J. et al. A neural basis for social cooperation. Neuron 35, 395–405 (2002).
Kirsch, P. et al. Oxytocin modulates neural circuitry for social cognition and fear in humans. J. Neurosci. 25, 11489–11493 (2005).
Skuse, D. H. & Gallagher, L. Dopaminergic-neuropeptide interactions in the social brain. Trends Cogn. Sci. 13, 27–35 (2009).
Storm, E. E. & Tecott, L. H. Social circuits: peptidergic regulation of mammalian social behavior. Neuron 47, 483–486 (2005).
Insel, T. R. A neurobiological basis of social attachment. Am. J. Psychiatry 154, 726–735 (1997).
Bowlby, J. Attachment and Loss (Basic Books, New York, 1982).
Charuvastra, A. & Cloitre, M. Social bonds and posttraumatic stress disorder. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 59, 301–328 (2008).
Coan, J. A., Schaefer, H. S. & Davidson, R. J. Lending a hand: social regulation of the neural response to threat. Psychol. Sci. 17, 1032–1039 (2006).
Lee, V., Cohen, S. R., Edgar, L., Laizner, A. M. & Gagnon, A. J. Clarifying “meaning” in the context of cancer research: a systematic literature review. Palliat. Support. Care 2, 291–303 (2004).
Caria, A. et al. Regulation of anterior insular cortex activity using real-time fMRI. Neuroimage 35, 1238–1246 (2007).
Weiskopf, N. et al. Self-regulation of local brain activity using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). J. Physiol. Paris 98, 357–373 (2004).
Folkman, S. & Moskowitz, J. T. Positive affect and the other side of coping. Am. Psychol. 55, 647–654 (2000).
Raine, A. & Yang, Y. Neural foundations to moral reasoning and antisocial behavior. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 1, 203–213 (2006).
Taylor, S. E., Eisenberger, N. I., Saxbe, D., Lehman, B. J. & Lieberman, M. D. Neural responses to emotional stimuli are associated with childhood family stress. Biol. Psychiatry 60, 296–301 (2006).
Vythilingam, M. et al. Childhood trauma associated with smaller hippocampal volume in women with major depression. Am. J. Psychiatry 159, 2072–2080 (2002).
Rutter, M. Developmental catch-up, and deficit, following adoption after severe global early privation. English and Romanian Adoptees (ERA) Study Team. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 39, 465–476 (1998).
Green, T. A., Gehrke, B. J. & Bardo, M. T. Environmental enrichment decreases intravenous amphetamine self-administration in rats: dose-response functions for fixed- and progressive-ratio schedules. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 162, 373–378 (2002).
Francis, D. D., Diorio, J., Plotsky, P. M. & Meaney, M. J. Environmental enrichment reverses the effects of maternal separation on stress reactivity. J. Neurosci. 22, 7840–7843 (2002).
Masten, A. S., Best, K. M. & Garmezy, N. Resilience and development: contributions from the study of children who overcome adversity. Dev. Psychopathol. 2, 425–444 (1991).
Luthar, S. S., Sawyer, J. A. & Brown, P. J. Conceptual issues in studies of resilience: past, present, and future research. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1094, 105–115 (2006).
Parker, G. Parental 'affectionless control' as an antecedent to adult depression. A risk factor delineated. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 40, 956–960 (1983).
McGowan, P. O. et al. Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse. Nature Neurosci. 12, 342–348 (2009).
Lyons, D. M. & Parker, K. J. Stress inoculation-induced indications of resilience in monkeys. J. Trauma. Stress 20, 423–433 (2007).
Parker, K. J., Buckmaster, C. L., Schatzberg, A. F. & Lyons, D. M. Prospective investigation of stress inoculation in young monkeys. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 61, 933–941 (2004).
Maier, S. F., Amat, J., Baratta, M. V., Paul, E. & Watkins, L. R. Behavioral control, the medial prefrontal cortex, and resilience. Dialogues Clin. Neurosci. 8, 397–406 (2006). In this article the authors review their findings that demonstrate, in animals, that control over stressful events limits the deleterious consequences on the individual.
Gluckman, P. D., Hanson, M. A., Spencer, H. G. Predictive adaptive responses and human evolution. Trends Ecol. Evol. 20, 527–533 (2005).
Champagne D. L. et al. Maternal care and hippocampal plasticity: evidence for experience-dependent structural plasticity, altered synaptic functioning, and differential responsiveness to glucocorticoids and stress. J. Neurosci. 28, 6037–6045 (2008).
About this article
Cite this article
Feder, A., Nestler, E. & Charney, D. Psychobiology and molecular genetics of resilience. Nat Rev Neurosci 10, 446–457 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2649
Reduction of DNMT3a and RORA in the nucleus accumbens plays a causal role in post-traumatic stress disorder-like behavior: reversal by combinatorial epigenetic therapy
Molecular Psychiatry (2021)
Activation of BDNF by transcription factor Nrf2 contributes to antidepressant-like actions in rodents
Translational Psychiatry (2021)
Resilience beyond reductionism: ethical and social dimensions of an emerging concept in the neurosciences
Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy (2021)
Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity (2021)
Current Psychology (2021)