Resilient individuals demonstrate adaptive psychological and physiological stress responses to acute stress, trauma or more chronic forms of adversity.
Resilience is an active process, not simply the absence of changes induced by stress.
Examining stress responses at multiple phenotypic levels can help to delineate an integrative model of resilience.
Positive emotions and cognitive reappraisal promote adaptive coping strategies and resilience.
Complex interactions between an individual's genetic make-up and their history of exposure to environmental stressors influence the adaptability of stress response systems and neural circuitry function.
Progress is being made in identifying the neural circuits in the brain that mediate resilience.
Recent work has begun to identify specific changes in gene expression and chromatin remodelling (that is, epigenetic adaptations) that underlie resilience.
Every individual experiences stressful life events. In some cases acute or chronic stress leads to depression and other psychiatric disorders, but most people are resilient to such effects. Recent research has begun to identify the environmental, genetic, epigenetic and neural mechanisms that underlie resilience, and has shown that resilience is mediated by adaptive changes in several neural circuits involving numerous neurotransmitter and molecular pathways. These changes shape the functioning of the neural circuits that regulate reward, fear, emotion reactivity and social behaviour, which together are thought to mediate successful coping with stress.
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