Mirror neurons are cells located in the premotor and posterior parietal cortex of the macaque brain. These cells fire when the monkey performs a goal-directed action and when it sees somebody else performing the same action.
Two areas of the macaque brain contain mirror neurons, area F5 in the inferior frontal cortex and area PF/PFG in the inferior parietal cortex. These areas are anatomically interconnected and embedded in parallel frontoparietal networks for sensorimotor integration.
Mirror neurons in monkeys also respond to the sound of actions, and code the intention associated with the observed action. This suggests that the mirror neuron system (MNS) is a key neural system for social cognition.
In humans, mirror neuron areas are located in the posterior inferior frontal gyrus and adjacent ventral premotor cortex, and in the rostral part of the inferior parietal lobule. The human MNS is causally related to imitation, a crucial factor for social interactions and learning.
The human MNS is also concerned with other aspects of social cognition, from understanding the intentions of other people to empathizing with them. Through interactions with the limbic system, the human MNS allows the understanding of emotional states of other people.
Evidence of MNS abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is provided by structural MRI, magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography, transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional MRI (fMRI). fMRI data show that children with ASD have reduced MNS activity during social mirroring and that MNS activity correlates with the severity of disease: the higher the impairment, the lower the MNS activity in ASD.
The discovery of premotor and parietal cells known as mirror neurons in the macaque brain that fire not only when the animal is in action, but also when it observes others carrying out the same actions provides a plausible neurophysiological mechanism for a variety of important social behaviours, from imitation to empathy. Recent data also show that dysfunction of the mirror neuron system in humans might be a core deficit in autism, a socially isolating condition. Here, we review the neurophysiology of the mirror neuron system and its role in social cognition and discuss the clinical implications of mirror neuron dysfunction.
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The authors' work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
- Theory of mind
Awareness that other people have beliefs and desires as we do, but different from our own, and that these beliefs and desires can explain the behaviour of others.
- Transcranial magnetic stimulation
(TMS). TMS involves creating a strong localized transient magnetic field that induces current flow in underlying neural tissue, causing a temporary disruption of activity in small regions of the brain.
- Positron emission tomography
(PET). In vivo imaging technique used for diagnostic examination that involves the acquisition of physiological images based on the detection of positrons, which are emitted from a radioactive substance previously administered to the patient.
- Diffusion tensor imaging
A technique developed in the mid-1990s, based on MRI in which diffusion constants of water molecules are measured along many (>6) orientations and diffusion anisotropy is characterized. It is used to visualize the location, orientation and anisotropy of the brain's white matter tracts, and is sensitive to directional parameters of water diffusion in the brain.
- Mu rhythm
Ongoing spontaneous electrical activity generated by the primary sensorimotor cortices, consisting of prominent frequencies between 10 and 20 Hz.
- Near infrared spectroscopy
(NIRS). Recently developed non-invasive neuroimaging technique based on light in the near infrared, highly applicable to the study of the infant brain in naturalistic settings.
(MEG). A non-invasive technique that allows the detection of the changing magnetic fields that are associated with brain activity on the timescale of milliseconds.
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Iacoboni, M., Dapretto, M. The mirror neuron system and the consequences of its dysfunction. Nat Rev Neurosci 7, 942–951 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2024
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