Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

The sleep-deprived human brain

Key Points

  • Sleep deprivation triggers a set of bidirectional changes in brain activity and connectivity, depending on the specific cognitive or affective behaviours engaged.

  • Changes in brain activity are observed when averaged across a session of task performance and during on-task performance, wherein marked brain network instability seems to be a neural hallmark of sleep deprivation.

  • Not all changes in brain function that are associated with sleep loss are maladaptive and thus represent deficiencies, as some predict resilience in behavioural ability and are therefore compensatory.

  • These basic scientific findings offer causal mechanistic insights into select neurological and psychiatric disorders in which abnormalities in sleep and cognition or emotion are highly comorbid, indicating that sleep intervention is an underappreciated and novel target for disease treatment and/or prevention.

  • The robust neural and behavioural phenotypes characterized by this Review can inform debates regarding sleep recommendations for both public and professional health policies, especially in light of the escalating sleep-loss epidemic prevalent throughout industrialized nations.

Abstract

How does a lack of sleep affect our brains? In contrast to the benefits of sleep, frameworks exploring the impact of sleep loss are relatively lacking. Importantly, the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) do not simply reflect the absence of sleep and the benefits attributed to it; rather, they reflect the consequences of several additional factors, including extended wakefulness. With a focus on neuroimaging studies, we review the consequences of SD on attention and working memory, positive and negative emotion, and hippocampal learning. We explore how this evidence informs our mechanistic understanding of the known changes in cognition and emotion associated with SD, and the insights it provides regarding clinical conditions associated with sleep disruption.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Sleep loss, attention and working memory.
Figure 2: Sleep loss and incentive processing.
Figure 3: Sleep loss and aversive processing.
Figure 4: Sleep loss and hippocampal memory encoding.

References

  1. 1

    Benca, R. M. Sleep in psychiatric disorders. Neurol. Clin. 14, 739–764 (1996).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Wulff, K., Gatti, S., Wettstein, J. G. & Foster, R. G. Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption in psychiatric and neurodegenerative disease. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 11, 589–599 (2010).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Insufficient sleep is a public health problem. CDC https://www.cdc.gov/features/dssleep (2015).

  4. 4

    Durmer, J. S. & Dinges, D. F. Neurocognitive consequences of sleep deprivation. Semin. Neurol. 25, 117–129 (2005).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Van Dongen, H. P., Maislin, G., Mullington, J. M. & Dinges, D. F. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation. Sleep 26, 117–126 (2003). This article provides a comparison of the cumulative, dose-dependent deficits in sustained attention resulting from chronic sleep restriction of varied amount, relative to total SD.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Belenky, G. et al. Patterns of performance degradation and restoration during sleep restriction and subsequent recovery: a sleep dose-response study. J. Sleep Res. 12, 1–12 (2003).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Borbély, A. A. A two process model of sleep regulation. Hum. Neurobiol. 1, 195–204 (1982).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Goel, N., Basner, M., Rao, H. & Dinges, D. F. Circadian rhythms, sleep deprivation, and human performance. Prog. Mol. Biol. Transl Sci. 119, 155 (2013).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Chee, M. W. et al. Effects of sleep deprivation on cortical activation during directed attention in the absence and presence of visual stimuli. Neuroimage 58, 595–604 (2011).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Chee, M. W. & Tan, J. C. Lapsing when sleep deprived: neural activation characteristics of resistant and vulnerable individuals. Neuroimage 51, 835–843 (2010). This paper describes the differences in fMRI signal in frontoparietal attention networks, thalamus and extrastriate cortex that differentiate individuals who are vulnerable (or, conversely, resilient) to impairments in attention following acute SD.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Chee, M. W., Tan, J. C., Parimal, S. & Zagorodnov, V. Sleep deprivation and its effects on object-selective attention. Neuroimage 49, 1903–1910 (2010).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Chee, M. W. et al. Lapsing during sleep deprivation is associated with distributed changes in brain activation. J. Neurosci. 28, 5519–5528 (2008).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Czisch, M. et al. On the need of objective vigilance monitoring: effects of sleep loss on target detection and task-negative activity using combined EEG/fMRI. Front. Neurol. 3, 67 (2012).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Drummond, S. P. et al. Sleep deprivation-induced reduction in cortical functional response to serial subtraction. Neuroreport 10, 3745–3748 (1999).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Thomas, M. et al. Neural basis of alertness and cognitive performance impairments during sleepiness. I. Effects of 24 h of sleep deprivation on waking human regional brain activity. J. Sleep Res. 9, 335–352 (2000).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Tomasi, D. et al. Impairment of attentional networks after 1 night of sleep deprivation. Cereb. Cortex 19, 233–240 (2009).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Kong, D., Soon, C. S. & Chee, M. W. Functional imaging correlates of impaired distractor suppression following sleep deprivation. Neuroimage 61, 50–55 (2012).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Mander, B. A. et al. Sleep deprivation alters functioning within the neural network underlying the covert orienting of attention. Brain Res. 1217, 148–156 (2008).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Muto, V. et al. Local modulation of human brain responses by circadian rhythmicity and sleep debt. Science 353, 687–690 (2016).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Chee, M. W. & Choo, W. C. Functional imaging of working memory after 24 hr of total sleep deprivation. J. Neurosci. 24, 4560–4567 (2004). This article provides a characterization of the changes in fMRI signal activity associated with working-memory impairments following acute SD, and how these patterns change as a function of task complexity.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Choo, W. C., Lee, W. W., Venkatraman, V., Sheu, F. S. & Chee, M. W. Dissociation of cortical regions modulated by both working memory load and sleep deprivation and by sleep deprivation alone. Neuroimage 25, 579–587 (2005).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Habeck, C. et al. An event-related fMRI study of the neurobehavioral impact of sleep deprivation on performance of a delayed-match-to-sample task. Brain Res. Cogn. Brain Res. 18, 306–321 (2004).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    Portas, C. M. et al. A specific role for the thalamus in mediating the interaction of attention and arousal in humans. J. Neurosci. 18, 8979–8989 (1998).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    Doran, S. M., Van Dongen, H. P. & Dinges, D. F. Sustained attention performance during sleep deprivation: evidence of state instability. Arch. Ital. Biol. 139, 253–267 (2001).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    Drummond, S. P. et al. The neural basis of the psychomotor vigilance task. Sleep 28, 1059–1068 (2005).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  26. 26

    Sridharan, D., Levitin, D. J. & Menon, V. A critical role for the right fronto-insular cortex in switching between central-executive and default-mode networks. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105, 12569–12574 (2008).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27

    Ma, N., Dinges, D. F., Basner, M. & Rao, H. How acute total sleep loss affects the attending brain: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Sleep 38, 233–240 (2015).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  28. 28

    Gumenyuk, V. et al. Habitual short sleep impacts frontal switch mechanism in attention to novelty. Sleep 34, 1659–1670 (2011).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  29. 29

    Gazes, Y. et al. Dual-tasking alleviated sleep deprivation disruption in visuomotor tracking: an fMRI study. Brain Cogn. 78, 248–256 (2012).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  30. 30

    Drummond, S. P., Anderson, D. E., Straus, L. D., Vogel, E. K. & Perez, V. B. The effects of two types of sleep deprivation on visual working memory capacity and filtering efficiency. PLoS ONE 7, e35653 (2012).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. 31

    Turner, T. H., Drummond, S. P., Salamat, J. S. & Brown, G. G. Effects of 42 hr of total sleep deprivation on component processes of verbal working memory. Neuropsychology 21, 787–795 (2007).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  32. 32

    Chee, M. W. & Chuah, Y. M. Functional neuroimaging and behavioral correlates of capacity decline in visual short-term memory after sleep deprivation. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104, 9487–9492 (2007).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  33. 33

    Lythe, K. E., Williams, S. C., Anderson, C., Libri, V. & Mehta, M. A. Frontal and parietal activity after sleep deprivation is dependent on task difficulty and can be predicted by the fMRI response after normal sleep. Behav. Brain Res. 233, 62–70 (2012).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  34. 34

    Chengyang, L. et al. Short-term memory deficits correlate with hippocampal-thalamic functional connectivity alterations following acute sleep restriction. Brain Imaging Behav. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-016-9570-1 (2016).

  35. 35

    Lei, Y. et al. Large-scale brain network coupling predicts total sleep deprivation effects on cognitive capacity. PLoS ONE 10, e0133959 (2015).

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  36. 36

    Yoo, S., Hu, P., Gujar, N., Jolesz, F. & Walker, M. A deficit in the ability to form new human memories without sleep. Nat. Neurosci. 10, 385–392 (2007). This paper characterizes the effects of acute SD on fMRI hippocampal encoding activity and function connectivity during fact-based learning.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  37. 37

    Luber, B. et al. Remediation of sleep-deprivation-induced working memory impairment with fMRI-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation. Cereb. Cortex 18, 2077–2085 (2008). This report demonstrates that repetitive TMS applied to visual occipital cortex can partially rescue performance impairments in a visual working-memory task following acute SD.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  38. 38

    Luber, B. et al. Extended remediation of sleep deprived-induced working memory deficits using fMRI-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation. Sleep 36, 857–871 (2013).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  39. 39

    Luber, B. et al. Facilitation of performance in a working memory task with rTMS stimulation of the precuneus: frequency-and time-dependent effects. Brain Res. 1128, 120–129 (2007).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  40. 40

    Volkow, N. D. et al. Evidence that sleep deprivation downregulates dopamine D2R in ventral striatum in the human brain. J. Neurosci. 32, 6711–6717 (2012). This PET ligand-binding study in humans provides evidence of dopamine D2/3R downregulation in the striatum following acute SD.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  41. 41

    Tufik, S. Changes of response to dopaminergic drugs in rats submitted to REM-sleep deprivation. Psychopharmacology 72, 257–260 (1981).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  42. 42

    Mullin, B. C. et al. Sleep deprivation amplifies striatal activation to monetary reward. Psychol. Med. 43, 2215–2225 (2013).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  43. 43

    Venkatraman, V., Chuah, Y. M., Huettel, S. A. & Chee, M. W. Sleep deprivation elevates expectation of gains and attenuates response to losses following risky decisions. Sleep 30, 603–609 (2007).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  44. 44

    Libedinsky, C. et al. Sleep deprivation alters valuation signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Front. Behav. Neurosci. 5, 70 (2011).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  45. 45

    Olson, E. A., Weber, M., Rauch, S. L. & Killgore, W. D. Daytime sleepiness is associated with reduced integration of temporally distant outcomes on the Iowa Gambling Task. Behav. Sleep Med. 14, 200–211 (2016).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  46. 46

    Killgore, W. D., Balkin, T. J. & Wesensten, N. J. Impaired decision making following 49 h of sleep deprivation. J. Sleep Res. 15, 7–13 (2006).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  47. 47

    Gujar, N., Yoo, S. S., Hu, P. & Walker, M. P. Sleep deprivation amplifies reactivity of brain reward networks, biasing the appraisal of positive emotional experiences. J. Neurosci. 31, 4466–4474 (2011).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  48. 48

    Greer, S. M., Goldstein, A. N. & Walker, M. P. The impact of sleep deprivation on food desire in the human brain. Nat. Commun. 4, 2259 (2013). This paper reports decreased fMRI signal in insular and frontal cortex, and increased amygdala activity, in response to desirable, high-calorie food item choices following acute SD.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  49. 49

    Menz, M. M., Buchel, C. & Peters, J. Sleep deprivation is associated with attenuated parametric valuation and control signals in the midbrain during value-based decision making. J. Neurosci. 32, 6937–6946 (2012).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  50. 50

    Franken, I. H., van Strien, J. W., Nijs, I. & Muris, P. Impulsivity is associated with behavioral decision-making deficits. Psychiatry Res. 158, 155–163 (2008).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  51. 51

    Bechara, A., Tranel, D. & Damasio, H. Characterization of the decision-making deficit of patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions. Brain 123, 2189–2202 (2000).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  52. 52

    Cedernaes, J. et al. Increased impulsivity in response to food cues after sleep loss in healthy young men. Obesity 22, 1786–1791 (2014).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  53. 53

    Demos, K. et al. Partial sleep deprivation impacts impulsive action but not impulsive decision-making. Physiol. Behav. 164, 214–219 (2016).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  54. 54

    Acheson, A., Richards, J. B. & de Wit, H. Effects of sleep deprivation on impulsive behaviors in men and women. Physiol. Behav. 91, 579–587 (2007).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  55. 55

    Ayalon, L., Ancoli-Israel, S. & Drummond, S. Altered brain activation during response inhibition in obstructive sleep apnea. J. Sleep Res. 18, 204–208 (2009).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  56. 56

    Anderson, C. & Platten, C. R. Sleep deprivation lowers inhibition and enhances impulsivity to negative stimuli. Behav. Brain Res. 217, 463–466 (2011).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  57. 57

    Libedinsky, C. et al. Sleep deprivation alters effort discounting but not delay discounting of monetary rewards. Sleep 36, 899–904 (2013).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  58. 58

    Rossa, K. R., Smith, S. S., Allan, A. C. & Sullivan, K. A. The effects of sleep restriction on executive inhibitory control and affect in young adults. J. Adolesc. Health 55, 287–292 (2014).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  59. 59

    Womack, S. D., Hook, J. N., Reyna, S. H. & Ramos, M. Sleep loss and risk-taking behavior: a review of the literature. Behav. Sleep Med. 11, 343–359 (2013).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  60. 60

    Greer, S. M., Goldstein, A. N., Knutson, B. & Walker, M. P. A genetic polymorphism of the human dopamine transporter determines the impact of sleep deprivation on brain responses to rewards and punishments. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 28, 803–810 (2016).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  61. 61

    Perogamvros, L. & Schwartz, S. The roles of the reward system in sleep and dreaming. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 36, 1934–1951 (2012).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  62. 62

    McCann, U. D. et al. Effects of catecholamine depletion on alertness and mood in rested and sleep deprived normal volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology 8, 345–356 (1993).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  63. 63

    Curb, J. D., Schneider, K., Taylor, J. O., Maxwell, M. & Shulman, N. Antihypertensive drug side effects in the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program. Hypertension 11, II51–II55 (1988).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  64. 64

    Hershey, T. & Chad, J. Effect of sleep deprivation on brain metabolism of depressed patients. Am. J. Psychiatry 1, 539 (1992).

    Google Scholar 

  65. 65

    Tomasi, D., Wang, G.-J. & Volkow, N. Involvement of striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors in the modulation of visual attention during rested wakefulness and sleep deprivation. Neuropsychopharmacology 40, S247–S248 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. 66

    Wu, J. C. et al. Frontal lobe metabolic decreases with sleep deprivation not totally reversed by recovery sleep. Neuropsychopharmacology 31, 2783–2792 (2006).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  67. 67

    Elmenhorst, D. et al. Sleep deprivation increases A1 adenosine receptor binding in the human brain: a positron emission tomography study. J. Neurosci. 27, 2410–2415 (2007). This human PET ligand-binding study demonstrates adenosine A 1 receptor upregulation in numerous cortical regions (maximal in OFC) and subcortical striatum following acute SD.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  68. 68

    Bonaventura, J. et al. Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor–dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3609–E3618 (2015).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  69. 69

    Richard, J. M. & Berridge, K. C. Nucleus accumbens dopamine/glutamate interaction switches modes to generate desire versus dread: D1 alone for appetitive eating but D1 and D2 together for fear. J. Neurosci. 31, 12866–12879 (2011).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  70. 70

    Park, K., Volkow, N. D., Pan, Y. & Du, C. Chronic cocaine dampens dopamine signaling during cocaine intoxication and unbalances D1 over D2 receptor signaling. J. Neurosci. 33, 15827–15836 (2013).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  71. 71

    Berro, L. et al. Sleep deprivation impairs the extinction of cocaine-induced environmental conditioning in mice. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 124, 13–18 (2014).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  72. 72

    Brondel, L., Romer, M. A., Nougues, P. M., Touyarou, P. & Davenne, D. Acute partial sleep deprivation increases food intake in healthy men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 91, 1550–1559 (2010).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  73. 73

    Knutson, B. & Gibbs, S. E. Linking nucleus accumbens dopamine and blood oxygenation. Psychopharmacology 191, 813–822 (2007).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  74. 74

    Horne, J. A. Sleep function, with particular reference to sleep deprivation. Ann. Clin. Res. 17, 199–208 (1985).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  75. 75

    Dinges, D. F. et al. Cumulative sleepiness, mood disturbance, and psychomotor vigilance performance decrements during a week of sleep restricted to 4–5 hours per night. Sleep 20, 267–277 (1997). This article provides a detailed behavioural characterization of the cognition and affective impact of cumulative, extended sleep restriction using subjective and objective measures.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  76. 76

    Zohar, D., Tzischinsky, O., Epstein, R. & Lavie, P. The effects of sleep loss on medical residents' emotional reactions to work events: a cognitive-energy model. Sleep 28, 47–54 (2005).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  77. 77

    Minkel, J. D. et al. Sleep deprivation and stressors: evidence for elevated negative affect in response to mild stressors when sleep deprived. Emotion 12, 1015–1020 (2012).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  78. 78

    Bernert, R. A. & Joiner, T. E. Sleep disturbances and suicide risk: a review of the literature. Neuropsychiatr. Dis. Treat. 3, 735–743 (2007).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  79. 79

    Kamphuis, J., Meerlo, P., Koolhaas, J. M. & Lancel, M. Poor sleep as a potential causal factor in aggression and violence. Sleep Med. 13, 327–334 (2012).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  80. 80

    Stubbs, B., Wu, Y.-T., Prina, A. M., Leng, Y. & Cosco, T. D. A population study of the association between sleep disturbance and suicidal behaviour in people with mental illness. J. Psychiatr. Res. 82, 149–154 (2016).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  81. 81

    Yoo, S. S., Gujar, N., Hu, P., Jolesz, F. A. & Walker, M. P. The human emotional brain without sleep — a prefrontal amygdala disconnect. Curr. Biol. 17, R877–R878 (2007). This paper describes amplified amygdala fMRI activity in response to negative experiences following acute SD, further associated with a loss of top-down connectivity with the mPFC.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  82. 82

    Motomura, Y. et al. Sleep debt elicits negative emotional reaction through diminished amygdala–anterior cingulate functional connectivity. PLoS ONE 8, e56578 (2013).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  83. 83

    Prather, A. A., Bogdan, R. & Hariri, A. R. Impact of sleep quality on amygdala reactivity, negative affect, and perceived stress. Psychosom. Med. 75, 350–358 (2013).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  84. 84

    Goldstein, A. N. & Walker, M. P. The role of sleep in emotional brain function. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 10, 679 (2014).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  85. 85

    Chuah, L. Y. et al. Sleep deprivation and interference by emotional distracters. Sleep 33, 1305–1313 (2010).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  86. 86

    Killgore, W. D. Self-reported sleep correlates with prefrontal-amygdala functional connectivity and emotional functioning. Sleep 36, 1597–1608 (2013).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  87. 87

    Goldstein, A. N. et al. Tired and apprehensive: anxiety amplifies the impact of sleep loss on aversive brain anticipation. J. Neurosci. 33, 10607–10615 (2013).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  88. 88

    Franzen, P. L., Buysse, D. J., Dahl, R. E., Thompson, W. & Siegle, G. J. Sleep deprivation alters pupillary reactivity to emotional stimuli in healthy young adults. Biol. Psychol. 80, 300–305 (2009).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  89. 89

    Etkin, A. & Wager, T. D. Functional neuroimaging of anxiety: a meta-analysis of emotional processing in PTSD, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. Am. J. Psychiatry 164, 1476–1488 (2007).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  90. 90

    Simmons, A., Strigo, I., Matthews, S. C., Paulus, M. P. & Stein, M. B. Anticipation of aversive visual stimuli is associated with increased insula activation in anxiety-prone subjects. Biol. Psychiatry 60, 402–409 (2006).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  91. 91

    Simmons, A. N. et al. Anxiety positive subjects show altered processing in the anterior insula during anticipation of negative stimuli. Hum. Brain Mapp. 32, 1836–1846 (2011).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  92. 92

    Harvey, A. G., Murray, G., Chandler, R. A. & Soehner, A. Sleep disturbance as transdiagnostic: consideration of neurobiological mechanisms. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 31, 225–235 (2011).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  93. 93

    Van Der Helm, E., Gujar, N. & Walker, M. P. Sleep deprivation impairs the accurate recognition of human emotions. Sleep 33, 335–342 (2010).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  94. 94

    Daniela, T. et al. Lack of sleep affects the evaluation of emotional stimuli. Brain Res. Bull. 82, 104–108 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. 95

    Goldstein-Piekarski, A. N., Greer, S. M., Saletin, J. M. & Walker, M. P. Sleep deprivation impairs the human central and peripheral nervous system discrimination of social threat. J. Neurosci. 35, 10135–10145 (2015). This study characterizes a failure in the accurate discrimination of anti-social versus pro-social facial signals at the behaviourally, brain (salience-detection network) and peripheral autonomic nervous system levels following acute SD.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  96. 96

    Simon, E. B. et al. Losing neutrality: the neural basis of impaired emotional control without sleep. J. Neurosci. 35, 13194–13205 (2015).

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  97. 97

    Alfarra, R., Fins, A. I., Chayo, I. & Tartar, J. L. Changes in attention to an emotional task after sleep deprivation: neurophysiological and behavioral findings. Biol. Psychol. 104, 1–7 (2015).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  98. 98

    Guadagni, V., Burles, F., Ferrara, M. & Iaria, G. The effects of sleep deprivation on emotional empathy. J. Sleep Res. 23, 657–663 (2014).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  99. 99

    Guadagni, V. et al. The relationship between quality of sleep and emotional empathy. J. Psychophysiol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/0269-8803/a000177 (2016).

  100. 100

    Craig, A. D. How do you feel? Interoception: the sense of the physiological condition of the body. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 3, 655–666 (2002).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  101. 101

    Minkel, J., Htaik, O., Banks, S. & Dinges, D. Emotional expressiveness in sleep-deprived healthy adults. Behav. Sleep Med. 9, 5–14 (2011).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  102. 102

    Berger, R. H., Miller, A. L., Seifer, R., Cares, S. R. & LeBourgeois, M. K. Acute sleep restriction effects on emotion responses in 30- to 36-month-old children. J. Sleep Res. 21, 235–246 (2012).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  103. 103

    Schwarz, J. F. et al. Shortened night sleep impairs facial responsiveness to emotional stimuli. Biol. Psychol. 93, 41–44 (2013).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  104. 104

    McGlinchey, E. L. et al. The effect of sleep deprivation on vocal expression of emotion in adolescents and adults. Sleep 34, 1233 (2011).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  105. 105

    Porges, S. W. The polyvagal theory: phylogenetic substrates of a social nervous system. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 42, 123–146 (2001).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  106. 106

    Hoedlmoser, K., Kloesch, G., Wiater, A. & Schabus, M. Self-reported sleep patterns, sleep problems, and behavioral problems among school children aged 8–11 years. Somnologie (Berl.) 14, 23–31 (2010).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  107. 107

    Baum, K. T. et al. Sleep restriction worsens mood and emotion regulation in adolescents. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 55, 180–190 (2014).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  108. 108

    Killgore, W. D. et al. Sleep deprivation reduces perceived emotional intelligence and constructive thinking skills. Sleep Med. 9, 517–526 (2008).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  109. 109

    Sadeh, A. et al. Sleep and psychological characteristics of children on a psychiatric inpatient unit. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 34, 813–819 (1995).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  110. 110

    Gordon, A. M. & Chen, S. The role of sleep in interpersonal conflict: do sleepless nights mean worse fights? Soc. Psychol. Personal. Sci. 5, 168–175 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  111. 111

    Mallick, B. N. & Singh, A. REM sleep loss increases brain excitability: role of noradrenaline and its mechanism of action. Sleep Med. Rev. 15, 165–178 (2011).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  112. 112

    Siegel, J. M. & Rogawski, M. A. A function for REM sleep: regulation of noradrenergic receptor sensitivity. Brain Res. 472, 213–233 (1988).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  113. 113

    Kametani, H. & Kawamura, H. Alterations in acetylcholine release in the rat hippocampus during sleep-wakefulness detected by intracerebral dialysis. Life Sci. 47, 421–426 (1990).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  114. 114

    Marrosu, F. et al. Microdialysis measurement of cortical and hippocampal acetylcholine release during sleep-wake cycle in freely moving cats. Brain Res. 671, 329–332 (1995).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  115. 115

    Abel, T., Havekes, R., Saletin, J. M. & Walker, M. P. Sleep, plasticity and memory from molecules to whole-brain networks. Curr. Biol. 23, R774–R788 (2013).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  116. 116

    McDermott, C. M. et al. Sleep deprivation causes behavioral, synaptic, and membrane excitability alterations in hippocampal neurons. J. Neurosci. 23, 9687–9695 (2003).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  117. 117

    Fernandes, C. et al. Detrimental role of prolonged sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis. Front. Cell. Neurosci. 9, 140 (2015).

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  118. 118

    Drummond, S. P. et al. Altered brain response to verbal learning following sleep deprivation. Nature 403, 655–657 (2000). This article provides evidence that bidirectional changes in fMRI cortical and subcortical activity predict performance impairments and performance compensation during verbal learning following acute SD.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  119. 119

    Van Der Werf, Y. D. et al. Sleep benefits subsequent hippocampal functioning. Nat. Neurosci. 12, 122–123 (2009).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  120. 120

    Antonenko, D., Diekelmann, S., Olsen, C., Born, J. & Molle, M. Napping to renew learning capacity: enhanced encoding after stimulation of sleep slow oscillations. Eur. J. Neurosci. 37, 1142–1151 (2013).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  121. 121

    Saletin, J. M. et al. Human hippocampal structure: a novel biomarker predicting mnemonic vulnerability to, and recovery from, sleep deprivation. J. Neurosci. 36, 2355–2363 (2016).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  122. 122

    Chuah, L. Y. et al. Donepezil improves episodic memory in young individuals vulnerable to the effects of sleep deprivation. Sleep 32, 999–1010 (2009).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  123. 123

    Poh, J.-H. & Chee, M. W. Degradation of cortical representations during encoding following sleep deprivation. Neuroimage 153, 131–138 (2017).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  124. 124

    Gujar, N., Yoo, S.-S., Hu, P. & Walker, M. P. The unrested resting brain: sleep deprivation alters activity within the default-mode network. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 22, 1637–1648 (2010).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  125. 125

    Pepeu, G., Giovannini, M. G. & Bracco, L. Effect of cholinesterase inhibitors on attention. Chem. Biol. Interact. 203, 361–364 (2013).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  126. 126

    Sato, H., Hata, Y., Masui, H. & Tsumoto, T. A functional role of cholinergic innervation to neurons in the cat visual cortex. J. Neurophysiol. 58, 765–780 (1987).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  127. 127

    Chuah, L. Y. & Chee, M. W. Cholinergic augmentation modulates visual task performance in sleep-deprived young adults. J. Neurosci. 28, 11369–11377 (2008).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  128. 128

    Mander, B. A., Winer, J. R., Jagust, W. J. & Walker, M. P. Sleep: a novel mechanistic pathway, biomarker, and treatment target in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease? Trends Neurosci. 39, 552–566 (2016).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  129. 129

    Mander, B. et al. Age-related impairments of memory and fast sleep spindles are mediated by deterioration of cortico-thalamic white matter pathways [abstract]. Sleep 35, A23 (2012).

    Google Scholar 

  130. 130

    Frey, D. J., Badia, P. & Wright, K. P. Inter- and intra-individual variability in performance near the circadian nadir during sleep deprivation. J. Sleep Res. 13, 305–315 (2004). This study characterizes the variability in behavioural performance across several task domains in response to SD, both within and between individuals.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  131. 131

    Porkka-Heiskanen, T. et al. Adenosine: a mediator of the sleep-inducing effects of prolonged wakefulness. Science 276, 1265–1268 (1997).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  132. 132

    Van Dongen, H. P., Belenky, G. & Krueger, J. M. A local, bottom-up perspective on sleep deprivation and neurobehavioral performance. Curr. Top. Med. Chem. 11, 2414–2422 (2011).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  133. 133

    Saper, C. B., Fuller, P. M., Pedersen, N. P., Lu, J. & Scammell, T. E. Sleep state switching. Neuron 68, 1023–1042 (2010).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  134. 134

    Van Dongen, H., Baynard, M. D., Maislin, G. & Dinges, D. F. Systematic interindividual differences in neurobehavioral impairment from sleep loss: evidence of trait-like differential vulnerability. Sleep 27, 423–433 (2004). This behavioural study describes inter-individual differences in behavioural task impairments following SD and how these relate to prior sleep history of those individuals.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  135. 135

    Mollicone, D. J., Van Dongen, H., Rogers, N. L., Banks, S. & Dinges, D. F. Time of day effects on neurobehavioral performance during chronic sleep restriction. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 81, 735–744 (2010).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  136. 136

    Rupp, T. L., Wesensten, N. J. & Balkin, T. J. Trait-like vulnerability to total and partial sleep loss. Sleep 35, 1163–1172 (2012).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  137. 137

    Kuna, S. T. et al. Heritability of performance deficit accumulation during acute sleep deprivation in twins. Sleep 35, 1223–1233 (2012).

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  138. 138

    Basner, M., Rao, H., Goel, N. & Dinges, D. F. Sleep deprivation and neurobehavioral dynamics. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 23, 854–863 (2013).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  139. 139

    Cui, J. et al. Microstructure of frontoparietal connections predicts individual resistance to sleep deprivation. Neuroimage 106, 123–133 (2015).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  140. 140

    Vandewalle, G. et al. Functional magnetic resonance imaging-assessed brain responses during an executive task depend on interaction of sleep homeostasis, circadian phase, and PER3 genotype. J. Neurosci. 29, 7948–7956 (2009).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  141. 141

    Marcus, E. R. Two views of brain function. Trends Cogn. Sci. 14, 180–190 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  142. 142

    Fox, M. D. & Raichle, M. E. Spontaneous fluctuations in brain activity observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 8, 700–711 (2007).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  143. 143

    Yeo, B. T., Tandi, J. & Chee, M. W. Functional connectivity during rested wakefulness predicts vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Neuroimage 111, 147–158 (2015).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  144. 144

    Kaufmann, T. et al. The brain functional connectome is robustly altered by lack of sleep. Neuroimage 127, 324–332 (2016).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  145. 145

    Gao, L. et al. Frequency-dependent changes of local resting oscillations in sleep-deprived brain. PLoS ONE 10, e0120323 (2015).

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  146. 146

    Wang, Y., Liu, H., Hitchman, G. & Lei, X. Module number of default mode network: inter-subject variability and effects of sleep deprivation. Brain Res. 1596, 69–78 (2015).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  147. 147

    Fox, M. D. et al. The human brain is intrinsically organized into dynamic, anticorrelated functional networks. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 102, 9673–9678 (2005).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  148. 148

    De Havas, J. A., Parimal, S., Soon, C. S. & Chee, M. W. Sleep deprivation reduces default mode network connectivity and anti-correlation during rest and task performance. Neuroimage 59, 1745–1751 (2012).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  149. 149

    Bosch, O. G. et al. Sleep deprivation increases dorsal nexus connectivity to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in humans. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110, 19597–19602 (2013).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  150. 150

    Sämann, P. G. et al. Increased sleep pressure reduces resting state functional connectivity. MAGMA 23, 375–389 (2010).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  151. 151

    Shao, Y. et al. Decreased thalamocortical functional connectivity after 36 hours of total sleep deprivation: evidence from resting state fMRI. PLoS ONE 8, e78830 (2013).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  152. 152

    Shao, Y. et al. Altered resting-state amygdala functional connectivity after 36 hours of total sleep deprivation. PLoS ONE 9, e112222 (2014).

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  153. 153

    Leech, R. & Sharp, D. J. The role of the posterior cingulate cortex in cognition and disease. Brain 137, 12–32 (2014).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  154. 154

    Tagliazucchi, E. et al. Large-scale brain functional modularity is reflected in slow electroencephalographic rhythms across the human non-rapid eye movement sleep cycle. Neuroimage 70, 327–339 (2013).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  155. 155

    Vyazovskiy, V. V. et al. Local sleep in awake rats. Nature 472, 443–447 (2011).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  156. 156

    Horovitz, S. G. et al. Decoupling of the brain's default mode network during deep sleep. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 106, 11376–11381 (2009).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  157. 157

    Brower, K. J., Aldrich, M. S., Robinson, E. A., Zucker, R. A. & Greden, J. F. Insomnia, self-medication, and relapse to alcoholism. Am. J. Psychiatry 158, 399–404 (2001).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  158. 158

    Thomas, R. J., Rosen, B. R., Stern, C. E., Weiss, J. W. & Kwong, K. K. Functional imaging of working memory in obstructive sleep-disordered breathing. J. Appl. Physiol. (1985) 98, 2226–2234 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  159. 159

    Wong, M. M., Brower, K. J., Fitzgerald, H. E. & Zucker, R. A. Sleep problems in early childhood and early onset of alcohol and other drug use in adolescence. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 28, 578–587 (2004).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  160. 160

    Van Cauter, E. et al. Impact of sleep and sleep loss on neuroendocrine and metabolic function. Horm. Res. 67 (Suppl. 1), 2–9 (2007).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  161. 161

    Markwald, R. R. et al. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110, 5695–5700 (2013).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  162. 162

    Michaelides, M. et al. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference. Neuroimage 59, 1508–1513 (2012).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  163. 163

    Germain, A. Sleep disturbances as the hallmark of PTSD: where are we now? Am. J. Psychiatry 170, 372–382 (2013).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  164. 164

    Mellman, T. A., Nolan, B., Hebding, J., Kulick-Bell, R. & Dominguez, R. A polysomnographic comparison of veterans with combat-related PTSD, depressed men, and non-ill controls. Sleep 20, 46–51 (1997).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  165. 165

    Lavie, P., Hefez, A., Halperin, G. & Enoch, D. Long-term effects of traumatic war-related events on sleep. Am. J. Psychiatry 136, 175–178 (1979).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  166. 166

    Breslau, N. et al. Sleep in lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder: a community-based polysomnographic study. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 61, 508–516 (2004).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  167. 167

    Habukawa, M., Uchimura, N., Maeda, M., Kotorii, N. & Maeda, H. Sleep findings in young adult patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol. Psychiatry 62, 1179–1182 (2007).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  168. 168

    Mellman, T. A., Bustamante, V., Fins, A. I., Pigeon, W. R. & Nolan, B. REM sleep and the early development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry 159, 1696–1701 (2002).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  169. 169

    Mellman, T. A., Kumar, A., Kulick-Bell, R., Kumar, M. & Nolan, B. Nocturnal/daytime urine noradrenergic measures and sleep in combat-related PTSD. Biol. Psychiatry 38, 174–179 (1995).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  170. 170

    Calohan, J., Peterson, K., Peskind, E. R. & Raskind, M. A. Prazosin treatment of trauma nightmares and sleep disturbance in soldiers deployed in Iraq. J. Trauma. Stress 23, 645–648 (2010).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  171. 171

    Raskind, M. A. et al. Reduction of nightmares and other PTSD symptoms in combat veterans by prazosin: a placebo-controlled study. Am. J. Psychiatry 160, 371–373 (2003).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  172. 172

    Raskind, M. A. et al. A parallel group placebo controlled study of prazosin for trauma nightmares and sleep disturbance in combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Biol. Psychiatry 61, 928–934 (2007).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  173. 173

    Taylor, F. B. et al. Prazosin effects on objective sleep measures and clinical symptoms in civilian trauma posttraumatic stress disorder: a placebo-controlled study. Biol. Psychiatry 63, 629–632 (2008).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  174. 174

    Jovanovic, T. et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder may be associated with impaired fear inhibition: relation to symptom severity. Psychiatry Res. 167, 151–160 (2009).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  175. 175

    Jovanovic, T., Kazama, A., Bachevalier, J. & Davis, M. Impaired safety signal learning may be a biomarker of PTSD. Neuropharmacology 62, 695–704 (2012).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  176. 176

    Grillon, C. & Morgan, C. A. III. Fear-potentiated startle conditioning to explicit and contextual cues in Gulf War veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 108, 134–142 (1999).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  177. 177

    Menz, M. M. et al. The role of sleep and sleep deprivation in consolidating fear memories. Neuroimage 75, 87–96 (2013).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  178. 178

    Spoormaker, V. I. et al. Effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation on fear extinction recall and prediction error signaling. Hum. Brain Mapp. 33, 2362–2376 (2012).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  179. 179

    Straus, L. D., Acheson, D. T., Risbrough, V. B. & Drummond, S. P. Sleep deprivation disrupts recall of conditioned fear extinction. Biol. Psychiatry Cogn. Neurosci. Neuroimaging 2, 123–129 (2017).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  180. 180

    Marshall, A. J., Acheson, D. T., Risbrough, V. B., Straus, L. D. & Drummond, S. P. Fear conditioning, safety learning, and sleep in humans. J. Neurosci. 34, 11754–11760 (2014).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  181. 181

    Greicius, M. D., Krasnow, B., Reiss, A. L. & Menon, V. Functional connectivity in the resting brain: a network analysis of the default mode hypothesis. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 100, 253–258 (2003).

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  182. 182

    Spreng, R. N. & Grady, C. L. Patterns of brain activity supporting autobiographical memory, prospection, and theory of mind, and their relationship to the default mode network. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 22, 1112–1123 (2010).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  183. 183

    Spreng, R. N., Stevens, W. D., Chamberlain, J. P., Gilmore, A. W. & Schacter, D. L. Default network activity, coupled with the frontoparietal control network, supports goal-directed cognition. Neuroimage 53, 303–317 (2010).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by awards R01-AG031164, R01-AG054019, RF1-AG054019 and R01-MH093537 to M.P.W. from the US National Institutes of Health.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Matthew P. Walker.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

PowerPoint slides

Glossary

Sleep disruption

Abnormal sleep that can be described in measures of deficient sleep quantity, structure (reflected by, for example, sleep cycle architecture) and/or sleep quality (assessed using, for example, spectral electroencephalogram power).

Functional connectivity

In functional MRI, the statistical association between time series of blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal in two or more anatomically distinct brain regions.

Attention

The ability to selectively maintain focus on behaviourally relevant stimuli, while disregarding irrelevant stimuli.

Working memory

The ability to maintain, manipulate and integrate mental representations of relevant information even when it is no longer present in the environment.

Sleep pressure

Also called 'homeostatic sleep drive' or 'Process S'. A set of homeostatic neurobiological processes that increase the likelihood of sleep, or 'sleep propensity'.

Partial sleep restriction

The state associated with a reduction (but not total absence) of sleep in the prior night or nights, usually ranging from 1–6 hours of sleep reduction. Sleep restriction is chronic if it persists for more than 24 hours.

Default mode network

(DMN). Collection of brain areas, including midline frontoparietal regions, that usually disengage during externally driven, goal-directed task performance and re-engage upon task termination.

Frontoparietal attention network

A bilateral brain network with core regions in the frontal and parietal lobes that exerts top-down control of sensory cortex to bias stimulus processing.

Impulsivity

Acting without deliberation, or choosing short-term gains over long-term gains.

Viscerosensory

Relating to corporeal information propagated by the spinal cord to brain regions involved in the sensation and coordination of bodily functions and associated behaviours.

Iowa Gambling Task

A test of reward processing that challenges the participant to maximize their earnings by forgoing short-term gains in return for eventual long-term gains.

Total sleep deprivation

The state associated with a complete absence of sleep in the prior night or nights.

Balloon Analogue Risk Task

(BART). A computerized measure of risk-taking behaviour. Participants are rewarded for inflating a 'balloon' but lose their reward if they overinflate and 'burst' the balloon.

Wake propensity

The likelihood of an organism maintaining the state of sustained wakefulness.

Adenosine

An endogenous compound involved in biochemical and neuromodulatory processes, including metabolism and sleep–wake regulation. It accumulates extracellularly with time spent awake and dissipates during slow-wave sleep.

Sleep quality

Measured subjectively, by means of self-reported perception of prior sleep, and objectively, using sleep-stage or quantitative electroencephalography sleep measures.

Rapid eye movement

(REM). Also known as paradoxical sleep. Sleep characterized by high-frequency, low-amplitude desynchronized electroencephalogram (particularly in the theta band), rapid eye movements, muscle paralysis and dreaming.

Non-rapid eye movement

(NREM). A type of sleep that consists of sleep stages 1–4 and that occurs towards the beginning of a sleep episode, and reflects homeostatic sleep processes.

Slow-wave sleep

Stage 3 and stage 4 of non-rapid eye movement sleep that is characterized by low-frequency (0.8–4 Hz), high-amplitude synchronized electroencephalogram (called delta waves).

Sleep spindles

Synchronized phasic bursts of electrical activity often measured in the cortex or scalp surface electroencephalogram lasting several seconds in the 11–15 Hz frequency range.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Krause, A., Simon, E., Mander, B. et al. The sleep-deprived human brain. Nat Rev Neurosci 18, 404–418 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn.2017.55

Download citation

Further reading

Search

Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing