Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


Pulling in opposite directions

The influence of gliotransmitter release from astrocytes on synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus remains unclear. Hippocampal astrocytes express two vesicular SNARE proteins, synaptobrevin II (SYB2) and cellubrevin (CEB), which are located on glutamatergic vesicles and neuropeptide-Y (NPY)-containing vesicles, respectively. Working with hippocampal cell culture and acute brain slices and comparing responses from mice lacking either SYB2, CEB or both, the authors show that whereas CEB-dependent NPY release from astrocytes decreases fast glutamatergic neurotransmission, SYB2-dependent glutamate release from astrocytes promotes such neurotransmission.


  1. 1

    Schwarz, Y. et al. Astrocytes control synaptic strength by two distinct v-SNARE-dependent release pathways. Nat. Neurosci. (2017)

Download references


Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lewis, S. Pulling in opposite directions. Nat Rev Neurosci 18, 643 (2017).

Download citation


Quick links