Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are produced throughout life and are required for motor learning, but their role in this process is unclear. Within 2–3 hours of beginning a motor-learning task, mice lacking the transcription factor MYRF (myelin regulator factor) showed reduced levels of new oligodendrocytes and impaired learning. Wild-type mice trained in this task exhibited accelerated differentiation of OPCs, suggesting that OPC differentiation contributes to motor learning in this task.
Xiao, L. et al. Rapid production of new oligodendrocytes is required in the earliest stages of motor-skill learning. Nat. Neurosci. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn.4351 (2016)
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Lewis, S. Motor learning with oligodendrocytes. Nat Rev Neurosci 17, 604 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn.2016.122