Malaria vaccines: the stage we are at

Article metrics

  • A Corrigendum to this article was published on 08 March 2011


With over 1 million deaths annually attributed to malaria, an effective vaccine is an urgently needed intervention. However, the various stages of the malaria parasite lifecycle have differing protective immune mechanisms and clinical endpoints, and usually different, often polymorphic, antigens. Trials using an increasing variety of vaccine platforms and antigens are under way in an attempt to achieve this long-awaited goal.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Global distribution of malaria incidence.

Change history

  • 08 March 2011

    The authors wish to acknowledge that they were supported by funding from the UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Oxford Biomedical Research Centre programme at the time of writing. The authors apologize for the oversight.


  1. 1

    Hay, S. I. & Snow, R. W. The malaria atlas project: developing global maps of malaria risk. PLoS Med. 3, e473 (2006).

  2. 2

    WHO. World Malaria Report. [online] (2005).

  3. 3

    Hill, A. V. Pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccines: towards greater efficacy. Nature Rev. Immunol. 6, 21–32 (2006).

  4. 4

    Alonso, P. L. et al. Efficacy of the RTS,S/AS02A vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum infection and disease in young African children: randomised controlled trial. Lancet 364, 1411–1420 (2004).

  5. 5

    Alonso, P. L. et al. Duration of protection with RTS,S/AS02A malaria vaccine in prevention of Plasmodium falciparum disease in Mozambican children: single-blind extended follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 366, 2012–2018 (2005).

  6. 6

    Webster, D. P. et al. Enhanced T cell-mediated protection against malaria in human challenges by using the recombinant poxviruses FP9 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 102, 4836–4841 (2005).

  7. 7

    Keating, S. M. et al. Durable human memory T cells quantifiable by cultured enzyme-linked immunospot assays are induced by heterologous prime boost immunization and correlate with protection against malaria. J. Immunol. 175, 5675–5680 (2005).

  8. 8

    Bejon, P. et al. A Phase 2b randomised trial of the candidate malaria vaccines FP9 ME-TRAP and MVA ME-TRAP among children in Kenya. PLoS Clin. Trials 1, e29 (2006).

  9. 9

    Prieur, E. et al. A Plasmodium falciparum candidate vaccine based on a six-antigen polyprotein encoded by recombinant poxviruses. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 101, 290–295 (2004).

  10. 10

    Li, S. et al. Viral vectors for malaria vaccine development. Vaccine 25, 2567–2574 (2007).

  11. 11

    Stewart, V. A. et al. Priming with an adenovirus 35-circumsporozoite protein (CS) vaccine followed by RTS,S/AS01B boosting significantly improves immunogenicity to Plasmodium falciparum CS compared to that with either malaria vaccine alone. Infect. Immun. 75, 2283–2290 (2007).

  12. 12

    Genton, B. et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a three-component blood-stage malaria vaccine (MSP1, MSP2, RESA) against Plasmodium falciparum in Papua New Guinean children. Vaccine 22, 30–41 (2003).

  13. 13

    Thera, M. A. et al. Safety and allele-specific immunogenicity of a malaria vaccine in Malian adults: results of a Phase I randomized trial. PLoS Clin. Trials 1, e34 (2006).

  14. 14

    Sirima, S. B. et al. Safety and immunogenicity of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-3 long synthetic peptide (MSP3-LSP) malaria vaccine in healthy, semi-immune adult males in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Vaccine 25, 2723–2732 (2007).

  15. 15

    Brando, C. et al. Murine immune responses to liver-stage antigen 1 protein FMP011, a malaria vaccine candidate, delivered with adjuvant AS01B or AS02A. Infect. Immun. 75, 838–845 (2007).

  16. 16

    Stoute, J. A. et al. Phase 1 randomized double-blind safety and immunogenicity trial of Plasmodium falciparum malaria merozoite surface protein FMP1 vaccine, adjuvanted with AS02A, in adults in western Kenya. Vaccine 25, 176–184 (2007).

  17. 17

    Polhemus, M. E. et al. Phase I dose escalation safety and immunogenicity trial of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane protein (AMA-1) FMP2.1, adjuvanted with AS02A, in malaria-naive adults at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. Vaccine 25, 4203–4212 (2007).

  18. 18

    Malkin, E. et al. Phase 1 study of two merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1(42)) vaccines for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. PLoS Clin. Trials 2, e12 (2007).

  19. 19

    Theisen, M. et al. Plasmodium falciparum GLURP-MSP3 chimeric protein; expression in Lactococcus lactis, immunogenicity and induction of biologically active antibodies. Vaccine 22, 1188–1198 (2004).

  20. 20

    Langermans, J. A. et al. Preclinical evaluation of a chimeric malaria vaccine candidate in Montanide ISA 720: immunogenicity and safety in rhesus macaques. Hum. Vaccin. 2, 222–226 (2006).

Download references


The authors thank the UK National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre programme for funding.

Author information

Correspondence to Stephen M. Todryk.

Related links

Related links


Entrez Genome Project

Plasmodium falciparum

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Todryk, S., Hill, A. Malaria vaccines: the stage we are at. Nat Rev Microbiol 5, 487–489 (2007) doi:10.1038/nrmicro1712

Download citation

Further reading