Logan, W. Dirt: the Ecstatic Skin of the Earth (W. W. Norton, 2007).
Serna-Chavez, H. M., Fierer, N. & van Bodegom, P. M. Global drivers and patterns of microbial abundance in soil. Global Ecol. Biogeog. 22, 1162–1172 (2013).
Fierer, N., Strickland, M., Liptzin, D., Bradford, M. & Cleveland, C. Global patterns in belowground communities. Ecol. Lett. 12, 1238–1249 (2009).
Waksman, S. Principles of Soil Microbiology (The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1927).
Torsvik, V. & Ovreas, L. Microbial diversity and function in soil: from genes to ecosystems. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 5, 240–245 (2002).
Ramirez, K. S. et al. Biogeographic patterns in below-ground diversity in New York City's Central Park are similar to those observed globally. Proc. R. Soc. B. Biol. Sci. 281, 20141988 (2014).
This study highlights that the majority of soil microbial taxa remain undescribed and that the soils in a single urban park can contain nearly as much microbial diversity as is found in soils from across the globe.
Dupont, A. Ö. C., Griffiths, R. I., Bell, T. & Bass, D. Differences in soil micro-eukaryotic communities over soil pH gradients are strongly driven by parasites and saprotrophs. Environ. Microbiol. 18, 2010–2024 (2016).
Tedersoo, L. et al. Global diversity and geography of soil fungi. Science 346, 1256688 (2014).
This paper presents one of the most comprehensive investigations of the global biogeography of soil fungi and identifies the factors that shape the diversity and composition of these communities.
Jenny, H. Factors of Soil Formation (McGraw-Hill, 1941).
Sexstone, A. J., Revsbech, N. P., Parkin, T. B. & Tiedje, J. M. Direct measurement of oxygen profiles and denitrification rates in soil aggregates. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 49, 645–651 (1985).
This study provides direct evidence that individual soil aggregates with diameters of just a few centimetres or less can have anaerobic microsites that contain active denitrifiers.
Philippot, L., Raaijmakers, J. M., Lemanceau, P. & van der Putten, W. H. Going back to the roots: the microbial ecology of the rhizosphere. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 11, 789–799 (2013).
D'Costa, V. M., McGrann, K. M., Hughes, D. W. & Wright, G. D. Sampling the antibiotic resistome. Science 311, 374–377 (2006).
Kuzyakov, Y. & Blagodatskaya, E. Microbial hotspots and hot moments in soil: concept & review. Soil Biol. Biochem. 83, 184–199 (2015).
Acea, M. J., Moore, C. R. & Alexander, M. Survival and growth of bacteria introduced into soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 20, 509–515 (1988).
Bashan, Y., de-Bashan, L. E., Prabhu, S. R. & Hernandez, J.-P. Advances in plant growth-promoting bacterial inoculant technology: formulations and practical perspectives (1998–2013). Plant Soil 378, 1–33 (2014).
Young, I. & Crawford, J. Interactions and self-organization in the soil–microbe complex. Science 304, 1634–1637 (2004).
Blagodatskaya, E. & Kuzyakov, Y. Active microorganisms in soil: critical review of estimation criteria and approaches. Soil Biol. Biochem. 67, 192–211 (2013).
Lynch, M. D. J. & Neufeld, J. D. Ecology and exploration of the rare biosphere. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 13, 217–229 (2015).
McGill, B. J. et al. Species abundance distributions: moving beyond single prediction theories to integration within an ecological framework. Ecol. Lett. 10, 995–1015 (2007).
Brewer, T. E., Handley, K. M., Carini, P., Gilbert, J. A. & Fierer, N. Genome reduction in an abundant and ubiquitous soil bacterium 'Candidatus Udaeobacter copiosus'. Nat. Microbiol. 2, 16198 (2016).
Mahé, F. et al. Parasites dominate hyperdiverse soil protist communities in Neotropical rainforests. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 1, 0091 (2017).
Rosenthal, L. M. et al. Survey of corticioid fungi in North American pinaceous forests reveals hyperdiversity, underpopulated sequence databases, and species that are potentially ectomycorrhizal. Mycologia 109, 115–127 (2017).
O'Brien, S. L. et al. Spatial scale drives patterns in soil bacterial diversity. Environ. Microbiol. 18, 2039–2051 (2016).
Lauber, C., Knight, R., Hamady, M. & Fierer, N. Soil pH as a predictor of soil bacterial community structure at the continental scale: a pyrosequencing-based assessment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75, 5111–5120 (2009).
Griffiths, R. I. et al. The bacterial biogeography of British soils. Environ. Microbiol. 13, 1642–1654 (2011).
This study maps soil bacterial communities across Great Britain and demonstrates that the diversity and composition of these communities are predictable from soil pH.
Cederlund, H. et al. Soil carbon quality and nitrogen fertilization structure bacterial communities with predictable responses of major bacterial phyla. Appl. Soil Ecol. 84, 62–68 (2014).
Sul, W. J. et al. Tropical agricultural land management influences on soil microbial communities through its effect on soil organic carbon. Soil Biol. Biochem. 65, 33–38 (2013).
Oliverio, A. M., Bradford, M. A. & Fierer, N. Identifying the microbial taxa that consistently respond to soil warming across time and space. Glob. Change Biol. 23, 2117–2129 (2017).
Pett-Ridge, J. & Firestone, M. K. Redox fluctuation structures microbial communities in a wet tropical soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71, 6998–7007 (2005).
Van Der Heijden, M. G. A., Bardgett, R. D. & Van Straalen, N. M. The unseen majority: soil microbes as drivers of plant diversity and productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. Ecol. Lett. 11, 296–310 (2008).
This article presents a comprehensive review of the mechanisms by which soil microorganisms can directly or indirectly influence plants.
Berg, G. & Smalla, K. Plant species and soil type cooperatively shape the structure and function of microbial communities in the rhizosphere. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 68, 1–13 (2009).
Peay, K. G., Baraloto, C. & Fine, P. V. A. Strong coupling of plant and fungal community structure across western Amazonian rainforests. ISME J. 7, 1852–1861 (2013).
Prober, S. M. et al. Plant diversity predicts beta but not alpha diversity of soil microbes across grasslands worldwide. Ecol. Lett. 18, 85–95 (2015).
Barberan, A. et al. Relating belowground microbial composition to the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional trait distributions of trees in a tropical forest. Ecol. Lett. 18, 1397–1405 (2015).
Lekberg, Y. & Waller, L. P. What drives differences in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities among plant species? Fungal Ecol. 24, 135–138 (2016).
Nunan, N. et al. Links between plant and rhizoplane bacterial communities in grassland soils, characterized using molecular techniques. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71, 6784–6792 (2005).
Singh, B. K., Munro, S., Potts, J. M. & Millard, P. Influence of grass species and soil type on rhizosphere microbial community structure in grassland soils. Appl. Soil Ecol. 36, 147–155 (2007).
Tedersoo, L. et al. Tree diversity and species identity effects on soil fungi, protists and animals are context dependent. ISME J. 10, 346–362 (2016).
Bulgarelli, D. et al. Revealing structure and assembly cues for Arabidopsis root-inhabiting bacterial microbiota. Nature 488, 91–95 (2012).
Crowther, T. W. et al. Predicting the responsiveness of soil biodiversity to deforestation: a cross-biome study. Glob.Change Biol. 20, 2983–2994 (2014).
Angel, R., Claus, P. & Conrad, R. Methanogenic archaea are globally ubiquitous in aerated soils and become active under wet anoxic conditions. ISME J. 6, 847–862 (2012).
Fierer, N. & Lennon, J. T. The generation and maintenance of diversity in microbial communities. Am. J. Bot. 98, 439–448 (2011).
Bailey, V. L. et al. Micrometer-scale physical structure and microbial composition of soil macroaggregates. Soil Biol. Biochem. 65, 60–68 (2013).
Bru, D. et al. Determinants of the distribution of nitrogen-cycling microbial communities at the landscape scale. ISME J. 5, 532–542 (2011).
Carini, P. et al. Relic DNA is abundant in soil and obscures estimates of soil microbial diversity. Nat. Microbiol. 2, 16242 (2016).
This study shows that soils can contain large amounts of extracellular DNA, and demonstrates that the removal of this DNA prior to microbial community analyses can reduce diversity and lead to changes in measured taxon abundances.
Bergmann, G. et al. The under-recognized dominance of Verrucomicrobia in soil bacterial communities. Soil Biol. Biochem. 43, 1450–1455 (2011).
Tremblay, J. et al. Primer and platform effects on 16S rRNA tag sequencing. Front. Microbiol. 6, 771 (2015).
Edgar, R. C. UPARSE: highly accurate OTU sequences from microbial amplicon reads. Nat. Methods 10, 996–998 (2013).
Choi, J. et al. Strategies to improve reference databases for soil microbiomes. ISME J. 11, 829–834 (2016).
Inceog˘lu, Ö., Hoogwout, E. F., Hill, P. & van Elsas, J. D. Effect of DNA extraction method on the apparent microbial diversity of soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76, 3378–3382 (2010).
Shade, A. Diversity is the question, not the answer. ISME J. 11, 1–6 (2017).
Jones, D. L., Nguyen, C. & Finlay, R. D. Carbon flow in the rhizosphere: carbon trading at the soil–root interface. Plant Soil 321, 5–33 (2009).
Vellend, M. Conceptual synthesis in community ecology. Q. Rev. Biol. 85, 183–206 (2010).
Cho, J. C. & Tiedje, J. M. Biogeography and degree of endemicity of fluorescent Pseudomonas strains in soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66, 5448–5456 (2000).
This study demonstrates that not all soil bacterial strains are widely distributed and that endemicity is apparent once bacterial diversity is assessed at sufficiently high levels of taxonomic resolution.
Andam, C. P. et al. A latitudinal diversity gradient in terrestrial bacteria of the genus Streptomyces. mBio 7, e02200–15 (2016).
Lauber, C. L., Ramirez, K. S., Aanderud, Z., Lennon, J. & Fierer, N. Temporal variability in soil microbial communities across land-use types. ISME J. 7, 1641–1650 (2013).
Uksa, M. et al. Community structure of prokaryotes and their functional potential in subsoils is more affected by spatial heterogeneity than by temporal variations. Soil Biol. Biochem. 75, 197–201 (2014).
Docherty, K. M. et al. Key edaphic properties largely explain temporal and geographic variation in soil microbial communities across four biomes. PLoS ONE 10, e0135352 (2015).
Herzog, S., Wemheuer, F., Wemheuer, B. & Daniel, R. Effects of fertilization and sampling time on composition and diversity of entire and active bacterial communities in German grassland soils. PLoS ONE 10, e0145575 (2015).
Žifc˘cáková, L., Ve˘trovský, T., Howe, A. & Baldrian, P. Microbial activity in forest soil reflects the changes in ecosystem properties between summer and winter. Environ. Microbiol. 18, 288–301 (2016).
Placella, S. A., Brodie, E. L. & Firestone, M. K. Rainfall-induced carbon dioxide pulses result from sequential resuscitation of phylogenetically clustered microbial groups. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 109, 10931–10936 (2012).
Morrissey, E. M. et al. Phylogenetic organization of bacterial activity. ISME J. 10, 2336–2340 (2016).
Wall, D. H., Nielsen, U. N. & Six, J. Soil biodiversity and human health. Nature 528, 69–76 (2015).
Yarwood, R. R., Rockhold, M. L., Niemet, M. R., Selker, J. S. & Bottomley, P. J. Impact of microbial growth on water flow and solute transport in unsaturated porous media. Water Resour. Res. 42, W10405 (2006).
Morales, V. L., Parlange, J. Y. & Steenhuis, T. S. Are preferential flow paths perpetuated by microbial activity in the soil matrix? A review. J. Hydrol. 393, 29–36 (2010).
Rütting, T., Boeckx, P., Müller, C. & Klemedtsson, L. Assessment of the importance of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium for the terrestrial nitrogen cycle. Biogeosciences 8, 1779–1791 (2011).
Rajkumar, M., Sandhya, S., Prasad, M. N. V. & Freitas, H. Perspectives of plant-associated microbes in heavy metal phytoremediation. Biotechnol. Adv. 30, 1562–1574 (2012).
Webster, G., Embley, T. M., Freitag, T. E., Smith, Z. & Prosser, J. I. Links between ammonia oxidizer species composition, functional diversity and nitrification kinetics in grassland soils. Environ. Microbiol. 7, 676–684 (2005).
Wieder, W. R., Grandy, A. S., Kallenbach, C. M. & Bonan, G. B. Integrating microbial physiology and physio-chemical principles in soils with the MIcrobial-MIneral Carbon Stabilization (MIMICS) model. Biogeosciences 11, 3899–3917 (2014).
This paper presents a demonstration of how incorporating trait-based information and dividing soil microbes into functional groups can improve models of soil carbon dynamics.
Manzoni, S., Schaeffer, S. M., Katul, G., Porporato, A. & Schimel, J. P. A theoretical analysis of microbial eco-physiological and diffusion limitations to carbon cycling in drying soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 73, 69–83 (2014).
Dini-Andreote, F. & van Elsas, J. D. Back to the basics: the need for ecophysiological insights to enhance our understanding of microbial behaviour in the rhizosphere. Plant Soil 373, 1–15 (2013).
Rocca, J. D. et al. Relationships between protein-encoding gene abundance and corresponding process are commonly assumed yet rarely observed. ISME J. 9, 1693–1699 (2015).
Prosser, J. I. Dispersing misconceptions and identifying opportunities for the use of 'omics' in soil microbial ecology. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 13, 439–446 (2015).
Pepe-Ranney, C., Campbell, A. N., Koechli, C. N., Berthrong, S. & Buckley, D. H. Unearthing the ecology of soil microorganisms using a high resolution DNA-SIP approach to explore cellulose and xylose metabolism in soil. Front. Microbiol. 7, 703 (2016).
Blazewicz, S. J., Barnard, R. L., Daly, R. A. & Firestone, M. K. Evaluating rRNA as an indicator of microbial activity in environmental communities: limitations and uses. ISME J. 7, 2061–2068 (2013).
This study highlights the perils of using RNA-based analyses to determine which microorganisms are active versus dormant in a given community.
Schnoes, A. M., Brown, S. D., Dodevski, I. & Babbitt, P. C. Annotation error in public databases: misannotation of molecular function in enzyme superfamilies. PLoS Comput. Biol. 5, e1000605 (2009).
Moran, M. A. et al. Sizing up metatranscriptomics. ISME J. 7, 237–243 (2013).
Knief, C. & Dunfield, P. F. Response and adaptation of different methanotrophic bacteria to low methane mixing ratios. Environ. Microbiol. 7, 1307–1317 (2005).
Krause, S. et al. Trait-based approaches for understanding microbial biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Front. Microbiol. 5, 251 (2014).
Lavorel, S. & Garnier, E. Predicting changes in community composition and ecosystem functioning from plant traits: revisiting the Holy Grail. Funct. Ecol. 16, 545–556 (2002).
Schimel, J. in Arctic and Alpine Biodiversity, Ecological Studies Vol. 113 (eds Chapin, F. S. & Korner, F. C.) 239–254 (Springer-Verlag, 1995).
Leininger, S. et al. Archaea predominate among ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in soils. Nature 442, 806–809 (2006).
Neufeld, J. D., Dumont, M. G., Vohra, J. & Murrell, J. C. Methodological considerations for the use of stable isotope probing in microbial ecology. Microb. Ecol. 53, 435–442 (2007).
Graham, E. B. et al. Microbes as engines of ecosystem function: when does community structure enhance predictions of ecosystem processes? Front. Microbiol. 7, 214 (2016).
Van Hees, P. et al. The carbon we do not see — the impact of low molecular weight compounds on carbon dynamics and respiration in forest soils: a review. Soil Biol. Biochem. 37, 1–13 (2005).
Grime, J. P. Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory. Am. Nat. 111, 1169–1194 (1977).
Vieira-Silva, S. & Rocha, E. P. C. The systemic imprint of growth and its uses in ecological (meta) genomics. PLoS Genet. 6, 1169 (2010).
This study demonstrates how genomic and metagenomic data can be used to estimate the minimum generation times of individual microbial taxa or whole communities.
Marles-Wright, J. & Lewis, R. J. Stress responses of bacteria. Curr. Opin. Struc. Biol. 17, 755–760 (2007).
Lauro, F. M. et al. The genomic basis of trophic strategy in marine bacteria. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 106, 15527–15533 (2009).
Ho, A. et al. Conceptualizing functional traits and ecological characteristics of methane-oxidizing bacteria as life strategies. Environ. Microbiol. Rep. 5, 335–345 (2013).
Bouskill, N. J., Tang, J., Riley, W. J. & Brodie, E. L. Trait-based representation of biological nitrification: model development, testing, and predicted community composition. Front. Microbiol. 3, 364 (2012).
Jeffries, P. & Rhodes, L. H. Use of mycorrhizae in agriculture. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 5, 319–357 (1987).
Kinkel, L., Bakker, M. & Schlatter, D. A coevolutionary framework for managing disease-suppressive soils. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 49, 47–67 (2011).
Chiquoine, L. P., Abella, S. R. & Bowker, M. A. Rapidly restoring biological soil crusts and ecosystem functions in a severely disturbed desert ecosystem. Ecol. Appl. 26, 1260–1272 (2016).
Wood, J., Liu, W., Tang, C. & Franks, A. Microorganisms in heavy metal bioremediation: strategies for applying microbial-community engineering to remediate soils. AIMS Bioeng. 3, 211–229 (2016).
Wessen, E. et al. Spatial distribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea across a 44-hectare farm related to ecosystem functioning. ISME J. 5, 1213–1225 (2011).
The Human Microbiome Project Consortium. Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome. Nature 486, 207–214 (2012).
Johnson, N. C., Graham, J. H. & Smith, F. A. Functioning of mycorrhizal associations along the mutualism–parasitism continuum. New Phytol. 135, 575–585 (1997).
Hamburg, M. A. & Collins, F. S. The path to personalized medicine. N. Eng. J. Med. 363, 301–304 (2010).
Gawad, C., Koh, W. & Quake, S. R. Single-cell genome sequencing: current state of the science. Nat. Rev. Genet. 17, 175–188 (2016).
Hultman, J. et al. Multi-omics of permafrost, active layer and thermokarst bog soil microbiomes. Nature 521, 208–212 (2015).
Pham, V. H. T. & Kim, J. Cultivation of unculturable soil bacteria. Trends Biotechnol. 30, 475–484 (2012).
Tyson, G. W. et al. Genome-directed isolation of the key nitrogen fixer Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum sp. nov. from an acidophilic microbial community. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71, 6319–6324 (2005).
Williamson, K. E., Radosevich, M. & Wommack, K. E. Abundance and diversity of viruses in six Delaware soils. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71, 3119–3125 (2005).
This is one of the first studies to show that soils harbour large and morphologically diverse viral populations.
Ashelford, K. E., Day, M. J. & Fry, J. C. Elevated abundance of bacteriophage infecting bacteria in soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69, 285–289 (2003).
Suttle, C. A. Marine viruses — major players in the global ecosystem. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 5, 801–812 (2007).
Zablocki, O., Adriaenssens, E. M. & Cowan, D. Diversity and ecology of viruses in hyperarid desert soils. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 82, 770–777 (2016).
Paez-Espino, D. et al. Uncovering Earth's virome. Nature 536, 425–430 (2016).
Kimura, M., Jia, Z.-J., Nakayama, N. & Asakawa, S. Ecology of viruses in soils: past, present and future perspectives. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 54, 1–32 (2008).
Frampton, R. A., Pitman, A. R. & Fineran, P. C. Advances in bacteriophage-mediated control of plant pathogens. Int. J. Microbiol. 2012, 326452 (2012).
Rosario, K. & Breitbart, M. Exploring the viral world through metagenomics. Curr. Opin. Virol. 1, 289–297 (2011).
Williamson, K. E. et al. Estimates of viral abundance in soils are strongly influenced by extraction and enumeration methods. Biol. Fert. Soils 49, 857–869 (2013).
Ghosh, D. et al. Prevalence of lysogeny among soil bacteria and presence of 16S rRNA and trzN genes in viral-community DNA. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74, 495–502 (2008).
Klumper, U. et al. Broad host range plasmids can invade an unexpectedly diverse fraction of a soil bacterial community. ISME J. 9, 934–945 (2015).
Mercier, A., Kay, E. & Simonet, P. in Nucleic Acids and Proteins in Soil (eds Nannipieri, P. & Smalla, K.) 355–373 (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006).
Wiener, P., Egan, S., Huddleston, A. S. & Wellington, E. M. Evidence for transfer of antibiotic-resistance genes in soil populations of streptomycetes. Mol. Ecol. 7, 1205–1216 (1998).
Springael, D. & Top, E. M. Horizontal gene transfer and microbial adaptation to xenobiotics: new types of mobile genetic elements and lessons from ecological studies. Trends Microbiol. 12, 53–58 (2004).
Villegas-Torres, M. F., Bedoya-Reina, O. C., Salazar, C., Vives-Florez, M. J. & Dussan, J. Horizontal arsC gene transfer among microorganisms isolated from arsenic polluted soil. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegradation 65, 147–152 (2011).
Barcellos, F. G., Menna, P., da Silva Batista, J. S. & Hungria, M. Evidence of horizontal transfer of symbiotic genes from a Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculant strain to indigenous diazotrophs Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii and Bradyrhizobium elkanii in a Brazilian savannah soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73, 2635–2643 (2007).
Tettelin, H., Riley, D., Cattuto, C. & Medini, D. Comparative genomics: the bacterial pan-genome. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 11, 472–477 (2008).
Brito, I. L. et al. Mobile genes in the human microbiome are structured from global to individual scales. Nature 535, 435–439 (2016).
Strickland, M. S. & Rousk, J. Considering fungal:bacterial dominance in soils — methods, controls, and ecosystem implications. Soil Biol. Biochem. 42, 1385–1395 (2010).
This review shows why the paradigm of using fungal-to-bacterial biomass ratios to infer the rates and controls on soil microbial processes is often not valid.
Eilers, K. G., Debenport, S., Anderson, S. & Fierer, N. Digging deeper to find unique microbial communities: The strong effect of depth on the structure of bacterial and archaeal communities in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 50, 58–65 (2012).
Baldrian, P. et al. Estimation of fungal biomass in forest litter and soil. Fungal Ecol. 6, 1–11 (2013).
Joergensen, R. G. & Wichern, F. Quantitative assessment of the fungal contribution to microbial tissue in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 40, 2977–2991 (2008).
Frostegard, A. & Baath, E. The use of phospholipid fatty acid analysis to estimate bacterial and fungal biomass in soil. Biol. Fert. Soils 22, 59–65 (1996).
Lavelle, P. & Spain, A. Soil Ecology (Kluwer Academic Publishing, 2001).
Bates, S. T. et al. Examining the global distribution of dominant archaeal populations in soil. ISME J. 5, 908–917 (2011).
Adl, M. S. & Gupta, V. V. S. R. Protists in soil ecology and forest nutrient cycling. Can. J. For. Res. 36, 1805–1817 (2006).
Orgiazzi, A. et al. Global Soil Biodiversity Atlas (European Commission, 2016).
Maestre, F. T. et al. Increasing aridity reduces soil microbial diversity and abundance in global drylands. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 112, 15684–15689 (2015).
Kuramae, E. E. et al. Soil characteristics more strongly influence soil bacterial communities than land-use type. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 79, 12–24 (2012).
Kuramae, E., Gamper, H., van Veen, J. & Kowalchuk, G. Soil and plant factors driving the community of soil-borne microorganisms across chronosequences of secondary succession of chalk grasslands with a neutral pH. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 77, 285–294 (2011).