The 5′ cap is a unique feature of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA that is absent from the bacterial and archaeal domains of life. The cap is formed by three enzymatic reactions at the 5′ terminus of nascent mRNAs. Although the capping pathway is conserved in all eukaryotes, the structure and genetic organization of the component enzymes vary between species. These differences provide insights into the evolution of eukaryotes and eukaryotic viruses.
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A taxon of protozoa that includes the pathogens Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Eimeria and Cryptosporidium.
One of two kingdoms within the archaeal domain, the other being Euryarchaea.
An extrachromosomal genetic element.
A taxon of protozoa that includes the pathogens Trypanosoma and Leishmania.
Multicellular animals that are composed of differentiated cells.
Small spore-forming unicellular eukaryotes that have an obligate intracellular parasitic lifestyle.
The evolutionary history of organisms.
The catalogue of predicted proteins that is encoded by an organism's genome.
The names of the taxonomic groups.
An orderly classification of species according to their presumed natural relationships.
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Shuman, S. What messenger RNA capping tells us about eukaryotic evolution. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 3, 619–625 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrm880
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