Table 1 Health end points targeted in human trials of orally administered prebiotics

From: Expert consensus document: The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) consensus statement on the definition and scope of prebiotics

Health end point Prebiotic used Refs
Metabolic health: overweight and obesity; type 2 diabetes mellitus; metabolic syndrome and dyslipidaemia; inflammation Inulin, GOS, FOS 22,74,75,83,84,85,86,87,88,89,90
Satiety FOS 75,76,90,91,92
Stimulation of neurochemical-producing bacteria in the gut GOS 93,94
Improved absorption of calcium and other minerals, bone health Inulin, FOS 95,96,97,98,99
Skin health, improved water retention and reduced erythema GOS 100,101
Allergy FOS, GOS 102,103,104,105
IBD Inulin, lactulose 106
Urogenital health GOS 107
Bowel habit and general gut health in infants GOS, FOS, 108,109
Infections and vaccine response FOS, GOS, polydextrose 110,111,112,113,114
Necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants GOS, FOS 115
IBS GOS 116
Traveller's diarrhoea GOS 117
Constipation Inulin 118,119
Immune function in elderly individuals GOS 56,120
  1. FOS, fructooligosaccharides; GOS, galactooligosaccharides.
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