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Experimental evidence of anti-carcinogenetic effects of PPIs — these results are awaiting clinical confirmation.
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A meta-analysis suggesting an almost twofold increased risk of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection in patients on PPIs.
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A relevant study showing that PPIs increase the risk of developing hepatic encephalopathy and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with liver cirrhosis.
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A large cohort study of a PPI (esomeprazole) that disproves the risk of community-acquired pneumonia.
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This study was an adverse event report showing a significantly increased risk of incident dementia in conjunction with PPI use; this report caused great concern in the general public.
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A population-based case–control study showing an increased risk of hospitalization with hypomagnesaemia in patients on PPIs that are also receiving diuretics.
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An important study showing that, in the absence of known precipitating factors (concomitant diuretic intake, chronic diarrhoea, chronic kidney disease and malignancies), chronic PPI use is not associated with hypomagnesaemia.
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Hess, M. W., de Baaij, J. H. F., Gommers, L. M. M., Hoenderop, J. G. J. & Bindels, R. J. M. Dietary inulin fibers prevent proton-pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced hypocalcemia in mice. PLoS ONE 10, e0138881 (2015).
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Attwood, S. E. et al. Long-term safety of proton pump inhibitor therapy assessed under controlled, randomised clinical trial conditions: data from the SOPRAN and LOTUS studies. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 41, 1162–1174 (2015).
This study shows data from controlled randomized trials with reassuring findings on long-term PPI use, electrolytes and micronutrients.
Vestergaard, P., Rejnmark, L. & Mosekilde, L. Proton pump inhibitors, histamine H2 receptor antagonists, and other antacid medications and the risk of fracture. Calcif. Tissue Int. 79, 76–83 (2006).
Yang, Y. X., Lewis, J. D., Epstein, S. & Metz, D. C. Long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy and risk of hip fracture. JAMA 296, 2947–2953 (2006).
Targownik, L. E. et al. Use of proton pump inhibitors and risk of osteoporosis-related fractures. CMAJ 179, 319–326 (2008).
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Ngamruengphong, S., Leontiadis, G., Radhi, S., Dentino, A. & Nugent, K. Proton pump inhibitors and risk of fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 106, 1209–1218 (2011).
Corley, D. A., Kubo, A., Zhao, W. & Quesenberry, C. Proton pump inhibitors and histamine-2 receptor antagonists are associated with hip fractures among at-risk patients. Gastroenterology 139, 93–101 (2010).
Kaye, J. A. & Jick, H. Proton pump inhibitor use and risk of hip fractures in patients without major risk factors. Pharmacotherapy 28, 951–959 (2008).
Targownik, L. E., Lix, L. M., Leung, S. & Leslie, W. D. Proton-pump inhibitor use is not associated with osteoporosis or accelerated bone mineral density loss. Gastroenterology 138, 896–904 (2010).
An accurate study shedding light on the association between PPIs and osteoporosis or accelerated bone mineral density loss.
Chen, C. H., Lin, C. L. & Kao, C. H. Gastroesophageal reflux disease with proton pump inhibitor use is associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis: a nationwide population-based analysis. Osteoporos. Int. 27, 2117–2126 (2016).
Serbin, M. A., Guzauskas, G. F. & Veenstra, D. L. Clopidogrel-proton pump inhibitor drug-drug interaction and risk of adverse clinical outcomes among PCI-treated ACS patients: a meta-analysis. J. Manag. Care Spec. Pharm. 22, 939–947 (2016).
A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies, showing that concomitant clopidogrel–PPI therapy following percutaneous coronary intervention is significantly associated with adverse cardiovascular events.
Sherwood, M. W. et al. Individual proton pump inhibitors and outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease on dual antiplatelet therapy: a systematic review. J. Am. Heart Assoc. 4, e002245 (2015).
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A position statement on the benefits, harms and appropriateness of PPI use.
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