Dua and colleagues aimed to regenerate the oesophagus and restore swallowing function in a 24-year-old patient with a full-thickness, long-segment defect using tissue engineering techniques. A fully covered, self-expanding metal stent was used as a scaffold, which was covered in extracellular matrix and sprayed with autologous platelet-rich plasma adhesive gel. 4 years after removal of the stent, full-thickness regeneration of the oesophagus was observed.
Dua, K. S. et al. In-vivo oesophageal regeneration in a human being by use of a non-biological scaffold and extracellular matrix. Lancet http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01036-3 (2016)
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Leake, I. Successful in vivo oesophageal regeneration in a human. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 13, 314 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrgastro.2016.78