Richard Goldschmidt is remembered today as one of the most controversial biologists of the twentieth century. Although his work on sex determination and physiological genetics earned him accolades from his peers, his rejection of the classical gene and his unpopular theories about evolution significantly damaged his scientific reputation. This article reviews Goldschmidt's life and work, with an emphasis on his controversial views.
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I thank M. McPeek and the reviewers for their many useful comments, and S. Bickel for her assistance with the arcana of Drosophila genetics.
A Drosophila homeotic mutant first described by Elizaveta Balkaschine in 1929 in which aristae (bristle-like structures at the tip of the antenna) are replaced by legs.
- BAR EYE
A Drosophila mutant in which the eye is reduced to a narrow bar owing to a reduction in the normal number of eye facets.
A Drosophila homeotic mutant first described by Calvin Bridges in 1915 in which the anterior part of the third thoracic segment is replaced by the anterior part of the second thoracic segment.
A Drosophila mutant first described by Calvin Bridges and T. H. Morgan in 1919 in which the wings appear blistered, small and pointed.
- DUMPY VORTEX THORAXATE
A Drosophila mutant first decribed by Calvin Bridges and T. H. Morgan in 1919 in which wings appear truncated, and altered wing-vein vortices and pits are present on the wing cuticle.
Small wing-like appendages that are located on the third thoracic segment of Drosophila and act as balancing organs.
- HOMEOTIC MUTATION
A mutation that causes one structure to develop in a place where another structure would normally develop.
- IMAGINAL DISC
A group of embyronic cells that differentiate and develop into adult structures such as legs and wings in Drosophila.
A term introduced by Oscar Vogt to describe the degree of expression of a trait.
An explanation of the relationships between phenotype and genotype.
A Drosophila mutant first described by Calvin Bridges and T. H. Morgan in 1919 in which wings have extra veins, especially at their tips and margins.
- POSITION EFFECT
A change in phenotype caused by a change in the location of a gene.
A Drosophila mutant first described by Calvin Bridges in 1919 in which the adult eye colour appears to be purple.
A Drosophila mutant first described by Calvin Bridges in 1919 in which the differentiation of bristles on the head and thorax are altered.
- SHIFTING BALANCE THEORY
A theory of evolution in which random genetic drift and different forms of selection are integrated to explain evolving populations.
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