Table 1 Examples of associations of human conditions with particular microbiota characteristics

From: The human microbiome: at the interface of health and disease

Disease Relevant finding Refs
Psoriasis Increased ratio of Firmicutes to Actinobacteria 88
Reflux oesophagitis Oesophageal microbiota dominated by gram-negative anaerobes; gastric microbiota with low or absent Helicobacter pylori 75,133
Obesity Reduced ratio of Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes 17,31
Childhood-onset asthma Absent gastric H. pylori (especially the cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) genotype) 96,134
Inflammatory bowel disease (colitis) Larger populations of Enterobacteriaceae 113
Functional bowel diseases Larger populations of Veillonella and Lactobacillus 135
Colorectal carcinoma Larger populations of Fusobacterium spp. 101,102
Cardiovascular disease Gut-microbiota-dependent metabolism of phosphatidylcholine 136