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Vertebrate gene predictions and the problem of large genes


To find unknown protein-coding genes, annotation pipelines use a combination of ab initio gene prediction and similarity to experimentally confirmed genes or proteins. Here, we show that although the ab initio predictions have an intrinsically high false-positive rate, they also have a consistently low false-negative rate. The incorporation of similarity information is meant to reduce the false-positive rate, but in doing so it increases the false-negative rate. The crucial variable is gene size (including introns) — genes of the most extreme sizes, especially very large genes, are most likely to be incorrectly predicted.

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Figure 1: Actual versus predicted exons in a known gene: TEA domain family member 1 (SV40 transcriptional enhancer factor on human chromosome 11).
Figure 2: Correlation between gene size and intron size.
Figure 3: Size dependencies for false-positive and false-negative rates.
Figure 4: Size dependency for gene fragmentation problem.
Figure 5: Detection of erroneous predictions using gene size.
Figure 6: Size dependency in tissue-specific expression.
Figure 7: Size independence of the over-prediction problem.
Figure 8: Complete and partial failure to detect a gene.


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We thank E. Eyras at the Sanger Center, UK, for explaining the details of the Ensembl procedures to us. This work was sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Commission for Economy Planning, Ministry of Science and Technology, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Beijing Municipal Government, Zhejiang Provincial Government and Hangzhou Municipal Government. Some of this work was also supported by the National Human Genome Research Institute.

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Correspondence to Gane Ka-Shu Wong.

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Gene Ontology






UCSC Human Genome Browser



The identification of protein-coding genes in genomic sequence, using no prior knowledge other than the signal and content terms.


An almond-shaped neurostructure that is involved in the production and response to non-verbal signs of anger, avoidance, defensiveness and fear.


A series of computer procedures that is used to identify the biological contents of a sequenced genome. Gene finding is only the first of many steps. Subsequent steps might include the identification of homologous genes, the assignment of biological function and so on.


The size of the spliced transcript, excluding introns. As gene-prediction programs do not detect untranslated regions, we do not include them in this definition.


(CM). The probability that less than 100 bp of the protein-coding sequence of a gene is correctly predicted.


Patterns of codon usage, which are unique to each species, that allow protein-coding sequences to be distinguished from surrounding non-coding sequence.


(FD). A fraction of a sequence of a gene, including its introns which is not covered by any of the gene predictions.


(FN). The probability that a segment that is known to code for protein is not correctly predicted to be coding, specified as a per-base pair or per-amino acid rate.


(FP). The probability that a segment that is predicted to code for protein is not in fact known to be coding, given as a per-base pair or per-amino acid rate. Note that we only count those exons that have some overlap to the region of the genome that is defined by the cDNA alignment. Exons that lie outside this region are relegated to the over-predictions.


The size of the unspliced transcript, including introns. As gene-prediction programs do not detect untranslated regions, we do not include them in this definition.


Genes the sequence characteristics of which are sufficiently outside the normal range to create problems for ab initio gene prediction.


Predicted exons that lie entirely outside the region of the genome that is defined by the complementary DNA alignment, but which are part of a prediction that has some overlap with this region. Note the distinction between this and false positives.


(Per-aa rate). In computing FPs and FNs, this is the method in which we also insist that the correct amino acids are predicted, which requires that the reading frame is correctly assigned.


(Per-bp rate). In computing FPs and FNs, this is the method in which we only ask that the correct nucleotides are predicted, without checking if the reading frame is correctly assigned.


The division of GenBank that is devoted to full-length reference sequences for experimentally confirmed genes.


A measure of prediction that is equivalent to one minus the false-negative rate.


(SAGE). A quantitative expression assay that is based on tags that are 10–20 bp in length, which are derived from mRNAs.


Short sequence motifs, such as splice sites, branch points, polypyrimidine tracts, start codons and stop codons, that are used to detect exon boundaries.


A measure of prediction that is equivalent to one minus the false-positive rate.


A set of known protein-coding sequences that is used to teach the ab initio gene-prediction program what the codon-usage patterns look like for a given species.

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Wang, J., Li, S., Zhang, Y. et al. Vertebrate gene predictions and the problem of large genes. Nat Rev Genet 4, 741–749 (2003).

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