Review Article | Published:

Anti-obesogenic and antidiabetic effects of plants and mushrooms

Nature Reviews Endocrinology volume 13, pages 149160 (2017) | Download Citation

Abstract

Obesity is reaching global epidemic proportions as a result of factors such as high-calorie diets and lack of physical exercise. Obesity is now considered to be a medical condition, which not only contributes to the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer, but also negatively affects longevity and quality of life. To combat this epidemic, anti-obesogenic approaches are required that are safe, widely available and inexpensive. Several plants and mushrooms that are consumed in traditional Chinese medicine or as nutraceuticals contain antioxidants, fibre and other phytochemicals, and have anti-obesogenic and antidiabetic effects through the modulation of diverse cellular and physiological pathways. These effects include appetite reduction, modulation of lipid absorption and metabolism, enhancement of insulin sensitivity, thermogenesis and changes in the gut microbiota. In this Review, we describe the molecular mechanisms that underlie the anti-obesogenic and antidiabetic effects of these plants and mushrooms, and propose that combining these food items with existing anti-obesogenic approaches might help to reduce obesity and its complications.

Key points

  • The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide as a result of high-calorie diets and sedentary lifestyles

  • Current anti-obesogenic therapies have limited effectiveness and/or severe adverse effects

  • Substances in plants and mushrooms have anti-obesogenic and antidiabetic effects by regulating appetite, nutrient digestion and absorption, adipogenesis, energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity and composition and function of the gut microbiota

  • Clinical data relating to the effectiveness of plants and mushrooms are limited, but preliminary evidence suggests they can have beneficial effects on body weight and fat accumulation in humans

  • Herbal and fungal phytonutrients could be combined with existing weight-loss treatments to optimize anti-obesogenic effects

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    The global epidemic of obesity: an overview. Epidemiol. Rev. 29, 1–5 (2007).

  2. 2.

    World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight. WHO (2016).

  3. 3.

    & Obesity. Lancet 366, 1197–1209 (2005). A comprehensive review of studies linking obesity with chronic diseases.

  4. 4.

    , , , & Mechanisms of obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance: insights into the emerging role of nutritional strategies. Front. Endocrinol. (Lausanne) 4, 52 (2013).

  5. 5.

    & The public health impact of obesity. Annu. Rev. Public Health 22, 355–375 (2001).

  6. 6.

    The medical risks of obesity. Postgrad. Med. 121, 21–33 (2009).

  7. 7.

    et al. The incidence of co-morbidities related to obesity and overweight: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health 9, 88 (2009).

  8. 8.

    Obesity as a medical problem. Nature 404, 635–643 (2000).

  9. 9.

    & Obesity and health-related quality of life. Obes. Rev. 2, 173–182 (2001).

  10. 10.

    , & Genetics of obesity and the prediction of risk for health. Hum. Mol. Genet. 15, R124–R130 (2006).

  11. 11.

    & Genetics of human obesity. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 20, 647–664 (2006).

  12. 12.

    & From obesity genetics to the future of personalized obesity therapy. Nat. Rev. Endocrinol. 9, 402–413 (2013).

  13. 13.

    , , & The obesity epidemic: challenges, health initiatives, and implications for gastroenterologists. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (NY) 6, 780–792 (2010).

  14. 14.

    et al. Benefits of modest weight loss in improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 34, 1481–1486 (2011).

  15. 15.

    & Pharmacologic treatment options for obesity: what is old is new again. Curr. Hypertens. Rep. 15, 182–189 (2013).

  16. 16.

    & Long-term drug treatment for obesity: a systematic and clinical review. JAMA 311, 74–86 (2014).

  17. 17.

    Current status of the field of obesity. Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 25, 283–284 (2014).

  18. 18.

    & The physiology of body weight regulation: are we too efficient for our own good? Diabetes Spect. 20, 166–170 (2007).

  19. 19.

    et al. Orlistat-associated adverse effects and drug interactions: a critical review. Drug Saf. 31, 53–65 (2008).

  20. 20.

    & Limitations in anti-obesity drug development: the critical role of hunger-promoting neurons. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 11, 675–691 (2012).

  21. 21.

    , & Obesity treatment: novel peripheral targets. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 68, 830–843 (2009).

  22. 22.

    & A clinical review of GLP-1 receptor agonists: efficacy and safety in diabetes and beyond. Drugs Context 4, 212283 (2015).

  23. 23.

    , & Surgical treatment of obesity. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 158, 135–145 (2008).

  24. 24.

    , , & Phytochemicals and adipogenesis. Biofactors 36, 415–422 (2010). An overview of phytochemicals that affect adipogenesis, and their mechanisms of action.

  25. 25.

    González- & Dietary phytochemicals and their potential effects on obesity: a review. Pharmacol. Res. 64, 438–455 (2011).

  26. 26.

    et al. A systematic review on use of Chinese medicine and acupuncture for treatment of obesity. Obes. Rev. 13, 409–430 (2012).

  27. 27.

    , & Natural products and drug discovery. Can thousands of years of ancient medical knowledge lead us to new and powerful drug combinations in the fight against cancer and dementia? EMBO Rep. 10, 194–200 (2009). An insightful overview of the role of herbal products in the development of pharmaceutical drugs.

  28. 28.

    Historical review of medicinal plants' usage. Pharmacogn. Rev. 6, 1–5 (2012).

  29. 29.

    , & Natural products as sources of new drugs over the period 1981–2002. J. Nat. Prod. 66, 1022–1037 (2003).

  30. 30.

    & The evolving role of natural products in drug discovery. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 4, 206–220 (2005).

  31. 31.

    & The value of plants used in traditional medicine for drug discovery. Environ. Health Perspect. 109 (Suppl. 1), 69–75 (2001).

  32. 32.

    Health effects of vegan diets. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 89, 1627S–1633S (2009).

  33. 33.

    , & Common dietary supplements for weight loss. Am. Fam. Physician 70, 1731–1738 (2004).

  34. 34.

    Making claims: functional foods for managing appetite and weight. Nat. Rev. Endocrinol. 6, 53–56 (2010).

  35. 35.

    & Artemisinin, a miracle of traditional Chinese medicine. Nat. Prod. Rep. 32, 1617–1621 (2015).

  36. 36.

    & FTY720 story. Its discovery and the following accelerated development of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor agonists as immunomodulators based on reverse pharmacology. Perspect. Medicin. Chem. 1, 11–23 (2007).

  37. 37.

    , & The pharmacological potential of mushrooms. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2, 285–299 (2005).

  38. 38.

    & Mushroom immunomodulators: unique molecules with unlimited applications. Trends Biotechnol. 31, 668–677 (2013). This article describes the major classes of medicinal mushrooms and their immunological properties.

  39. 39.

    Medicinal mushroom science: current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges. Biomed. J. 37, 345–356 (2014).

  40. 40.

    , , , & Treatment of obesity with celastrol. Cell 161, 999–1011 (2015). A seminal study on the screening and identification of an anti-obesogenic compound from a plant used in traditional Chinese medicine.

  41. 41.

    et al. Ganoderma lucidum reduces obesity in mice by modulating the composition of the gut microbiota. Nat. Commun. 6, 7489 (2015). This study demonstrated that a medicinal mushroom produces anti-obesogenic and antidiabetic effects in mice by modulating the composition of the gut microbiota.

  42. 42.

    & Brain regulation of appetite and satiety. Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am. 37, 811–823 (2008).

  43. 43.

    , & Bowels control brain: gut hormones and obesity. Nat. Rev. Endocrinol. 6, 444–453 (2010).

  44. 44.

    Brain regulation of energy balance and body weight. Rev. Endocr. Metab. Disord. 14, 387–407 (2013).

  45. 45.

    et al. Endoplasmic reticulum stress plays a central role in development of leptin resistance. Cell Metab. 9, 35–51 (2009).

  46. 46.

    , & Mechanisms of leptin action and leptin resistance. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 70, 537–556 (2008).

  47. 47.

    & Unfolded protein response signaling and metabolic diseases. J. Biol. Chem. 289, 1203–1211 (2014).

  48. 48.

    , , , & Celastrol, a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug, as a possible treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 25, 1341–1357 (2001).

  49. 49.

    , , & Effect of fenugreek fiber on satiety, blood glucose and insulin response and energy intake in obese subjects. Phytother. Res. 23, 1543–1548 (2009).

  50. 50.

    Overview of adrenergic anorectic agents. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 55, 193S–198S (1992).

  51. 51.

    Ephedra and its application to sport performance: another concern for the athletic trainer? J. Athl. Train. 36, 420–424 (2001).

  52. 52.

    et al. Efficacy and safety of ephedra and ephedrine for weight loss and athletic performance: a meta-analysis. JAMA 289, 1537–1545 (2003).

  53. 53.

    Mode of action of orlistat. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 21, S12–S23 (1997).

  54. 54.

    & Pancreatic lipase inhibitors from natural sources: unexplored potential. Drug Discov. Today 12, 879–889 (2007). A comprehensive review of pancreatic lipase inhibitors that have been found in natural health products.

  55. 55.

    et al. Maté tea inhibits in vitro pancreatic lipase activity and has hypolipidemic effect on high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Obesity (Silver Spring) 18, 42–47 (2010).

  56. 56.

    , , & Screening for anti-lipase properties of 37 traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. J. Chin. Med. Assoc. 73, 319–324 (2010).

  57. 57.

    et al. The amylase inhibitor montbretin A reveals a new glycosidase inhibition motif. Nat. Chem. Biol. 11, 691–696 (2015).

  58. 58.

    Physiological and metabolic effects of dietary fiber. Fed. Proc. 44, 2902–2906 (1985).

  59. 59.

    Soluble fiber polysaccharides: effects on plasma cholesterol and colonic fermentation. Nutr. Rev. 49, 195–203 (1991).

  60. 60.

    & Drug–nutrient interactions: a review. AACN Clin. Issues 11, 580–589 (2000).

  61. 61.

    et al. Dose effects of dietary phytosterols on cholesterol metabolism: a controlled feeding study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 91, 32–38 (2010).

  62. 62.

    & A mouse model of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Methods Mol. Biol. 821, 421–433 (2012).

  63. 63.

    Brown adipose tissue in humans. Int. J. Obes. (Lond.) 34, S43–S46 (2010).

  64. 64.

    & Endocrine functions of adipose tissue. Annu. Rev. Pathol. 2, 31–56 (2007).

  65. 65.

    & Obesity and its metabolic complications: the role of adipokines and the relationship between obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, 6184–6223 (2014).

  66. 66.

    et al. Inhibitory effect of (–)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 cells. Obesity (Silver Spring) 15, 2571–2582 (2007).

  67. 67.

    , & Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate inhibits adipogenesis and induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Obes. Res. 13, 982–990 (2005).

  68. 68.

    et al. Enhanced inhibition of adipogenesis and induction of apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with combinations of resveratrol and quercetin. Life Sci. 82, 1032–1039 (2008).

  69. 69.

    , , , & Resveratrol induces apoptosis and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Phytother. Res. 22, 1367–1371 (2008).

  70. 70.

    et al. Genistein affects adipose tissue deposition in a dose-dependent and gender-specific manner. Endocrinology 147, 5740–5751 (2006).

  71. 71.

    et al. Genistein inhibits differentiation of primary human adipocytes. J. Nutr. Biochem. 20, 140–148 (2009).

  72. 72.

    , & Active ingredients from natural botanicals in the treatment of obesity. Obes. Rev. 15, 957–967 (2014).

  73. 73.

    & Effects of capsaicin on induction of apoptosis and inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55, 1730–1736 (2007).

  74. 74.

    , & PPARγ in adipocyte differentiation and metabolism — novel insights from genome-wide studies. FEBS Lett. 584, 3242–3249 (2010).

  75. 75.

    , , , & Wild ginseng prevents the onset of high-fat diet induced hyperglycemia and obesity in ICR mice. Arch. Pharm. Res. 27, 790–796 (2004).

  76. 76.

    , & Adiponectin: a relevant player in PPARγ-agonist-mediated improvements in hepatic insulin sensitivity? Int. J. Obes. (Lond.) 29, S17–S23 (2005).

  77. 77.

    et al. Mice lacking adiponectin show decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity and reduced responsiveness to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonists. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 2654–2660 (2006).

  78. 78.

    et al. Natural product agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ): a review. Biochem. Pharmacol. 92, 73–89 (2014).

  79. 79.

    , & Thiazolidinediones and PPARγ agonists: time for a reassessment. Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 23, 205–215 (2012).

  80. 80.

    & Brown fat in humans: turning up the heat on obesity. Diabetes 58, 1482–1484 (2009).

  81. 81.

    , , & Uncoupling protein-3 is a mediator of thermogenesis regulated by thyroid hormone, β3-adrenergic agonists, and leptin. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 24129–24132 (1997).

  82. 82.

    , & Food ingredients as anti-obesity agents. Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 26, 585–587 (2015). An insightful overview of the anti-obesogenic effects produced by activation of thermogenesis in brown-fat tissues.

  83. 83.

    et al. Uncoupled protein 3 and p38 signal pathways are involved in anti-obesity activity of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Bora Valley. J. Ethnopharmacol. 118, 396–404 (2008).

  84. 84.

    et al. Berberine activates thermogenesis in white and brown adipose tissue. Nat. Commun. 5, 5493 (2014).

  85. 85.

    AMPK: a key regulator of energy balance in the single cell and the whole organism. Int. J. Obes. (Lond.) 32, S7–S12 (2008).

  86. 86.

    , & AMPK: a nutrient and energy sensor that maintains energy homeostasis. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 13, 251–262 (2012).

  87. 87.

    et al. Berberine, a natural plant product, activates AMP-activated protein kinase with beneficial metabolic effects in diabetic and insulin-resistant states. Diabetes 55, 2256–2264 (2006).

  88. 88.

    et al. Genistein, EGCG, and capsaicin inhibit adipocyte differentiation process via activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 338, 694–699 (2005).

  89. 89.

    et al. Resveratrol induces brown-like adipocyte formation in white fat through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α1. Int. J. Obes. (Lond.) 39, 967–976 (2015).

  90. 90.

    , & Quantifying effect of statins on low density lipoprotein cholesterol, ischaemic heart disease, and stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 326, 1423 (2003).

  91. 91.

    , , , & Contents of lovastatin, γ-aminobutyric acid and ergothioneine in mushroom fruiting bodies and mycelia. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 47, 274–278 (2012).

  92. 92.

    et al. Comparative study of contents of several bioactive components in fruiting bodies and mycelia of culinary-medicinal mushrooms. Int. J. Med. Mushrooms 15, 315–323 (2013).

  93. 93.

    , , & Exposure assessment of lovastatin in Pu-erh tea. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 164, 26–31 (2013).

  94. 94.

    et al. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate potently inhibits the in vitro activity of hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase. J. Lipid Res. 52, 897–907 (2011).

  95. 95.

    β cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Front. Endocrinol. (Lausanne) 4, 37 (2013).

  96. 96.

    et al. Flavonoids protect against cytokine-induced pancreatic β-cell damage through suppression of nuclear factor κB activation. Pancreas 35, e1–e9 (2007).

  97. 97.

    , & Pancreatic β cell protection/regeneration with phytotherapy. Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. 51, 1–16 (2015).

  98. 98.

    & Role of oxidative stress in pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1011, 168–176 (2004).

  99. 99.

    , & Polyphenols: antioxidants and beyond. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 81, 215S–217S (2005).

  100. 100.

    , & Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants. Adv. Food Nutr. Res. 67, 75–139 (2012).

  101. 101.

    & Antidiabetic properties of dietary flavonoids: a cellular mechanism review. Nutr. Metab. (Lond.) 12, 60 (2015).

  102. 102.

    et al. The multiple actions of GLP-1 on the process of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Diabetes 51, S434–S442 (2002).

  103. 103.

    , & Short-chain fatty acids in control of body weight and insulin sensitivity. Nat. Rev. Endocrinol. 11, 577–591 (2015). This review describes multiple roles of the gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in regulation of body weight and insulin sensitivity.

  104. 104.

    et al. Resveratrol ameliorates aging-related metabolic phenotypes by inhibiting cAMP phosphodiesterases. Cell 148, 421–433 (2012).

  105. 105.

    et al. Effects of green tea extract on insulin resistance and glucagon-like peptide 1 in patients with type 2 diabetes and lipid abnormalities: a randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled trial. PLoS ONE 9, e91163 (2014).

  106. 106.

    , , , & Low molecular weight chitosan accelerates glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion in human intestinal endocrine cells via a p38-dependent pathway. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61, 4855–4861 (2013).

  107. 107.

    , , & Chitosan reduces plasma adipocytokines and lipid accumulation in liver and adipose tissues and ameliorates insulin resistance in diabetic rats. J. Med. Food 15, 453–460 (2012).

  108. 108.

    , & Ameliorative effects of glycyrrhizin on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 63, 287–296 (2011).

  109. 109.

    , & Anti-diabetic effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose in db/db mice. J. Ethnopharmacol. 104, 119–123 (2006).

  110. 110.

    et al. Konjac-Mannan and American ginsing: emerging alternative therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 20, 370S–380S (2001).

  111. 111.

    , , & Plant-derived therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Curr. Opin. Investig. Drugs 11, 1107–1115 (2010).

  112. 112.

    et al. Impact of the gut microbiota, prebiotics, and probiotics on human health and disease. Biomed. J. 37, 259–268 (2014). This article describes the physiological and pathological effects of the gut microbiota in animals and humans.

  113. 113.

    , , & Targeting gut microbiota in obesity: effects of prebiotics and probiotics. Nat. Rev. Endocrinol. 7, 639–646 (2011). An insightful review of the contribution of the gut microbiota in obesity, along with possible innovative treatments in this field.

  114. 114.

    , & The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance. Mol. Aspects Med. 34, 39–58 (2013). This comprehensive review describes the contribution of the gut microbiota in obesity and insulin resistance.

  115. 115.

    et al. An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest. Nature 444, 1027–1031 (2006).

  116. 116.

    et al. Impact of oral vancomycin on gut microbiota, bile acid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. J. Hepatol. 60, 824–831 (2014).

  117. 117.

    et al. Transfer of intestinal microbiota from lean donors increases insulin sensitivity in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Gastroenterology 143, 913.e7–916.e7 (2012).

  118. 118.

    Obesity: medicinal mushroom reduces obesity by modulating microbiota. Nat. Rev. Endocrinol. 11, 504 (2015).

  119. 119.

    & Gut microbiota: Ganoderma lucidum, a new prebiotic agent to treat obesity? Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 12, 553–554 (2015).

  120. 120.

    , , , & Beneficial metabolic effects of a probiotic via butyrate-induced GLP-1 hormone secretion. J. Biol. Chem. 288, 25088–25097 (2013).

  121. 121.

    et al. Glucagon-like peptide-1 protects β-cells against apoptosis by increasing the activity of an Igf-2/Igf-1 receptor autocrine loop. Diabetes 58, 1816–1825 (2009).

  122. 122.

    et al. Gut commensal E. coli proteins activate host satiety pathways following nutrient-induced bacterial growth. Cell Metab. 23, 324–334 (2015).

  123. 123.

    , , & Mushroom as a potential source of prebiotics: a review. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 20, 567–575 (2009).

  124. 124.

    et al. Could the gut microbiota reconcile the oral bioavailability conundrum of traditional herbs? J. Ethnopharmacol. 179, 253–264 (2016).

  125. 125.

    , & Green tea (–)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduces body weight with regulation of multiple genes expression in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Ann. Nutr. Metab. 54, 151–157 (2009).

  126. 126.

    et al. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 channel prevents adipogenesis and obesity. Circ. Res. 100, 1063–1070 (2007).

  127. 127.

    et al. Effects of different doses of resveratrol on body fat and serum parameters in rats fed a hypercaloric diet. J. Physiol. Biochem. 65, 369–376 (2009).

  128. 128.

    , , , & Resveratrol in metabolic health: an overview of the current evidence and perspectives. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1290, 74–82 (2013).

  129. 129.

    , & Therapeutic potential of resveratrol in obesity and type 2 diabetes: new avenues for health benefits? Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1290, 83–89 (2013).

  130. 130.

    , , & Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 32, 791–796 (2009).

  131. 131.

    et al. Dietary flavonoid intake and weight maintenance: three prospective cohorts of 124,086 US men and women followed for up to 24 years. BMJ 352, i17 (2016).

  132. 132.

    , , & A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of a product containing ephedrine, caffeine, and other ingredients from herbal sources for treatment of overweight and obesity in the absence of lifestyle treatment. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 28, 1411–1419 (2004).

  133. 133.

    , & The effects of green tea on weight loss and weight maintenance: a meta-analysis. Int. J. Obes. (Lond.) 33, 956–961 (2009).

  134. 134.

    , & The use of green coffee extract as a weight loss supplement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. Gastroenterol. Res. Pract. 2011, 382852 (2011).

  135. 135.

    , , , & GreenSelect Phytosome as an adjunct to a low-calorie diet for treatment of obesity: a clinical trial. Altern. Med. Rev. 14, 154–160 (2009).

  136. 136.

    , , , & The use of Garcinia extract (hydroxycitric acid) as a weight loss supplement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. J. Obes. 2011, 509038 (2011).

  137. 137.

    , , & Short-term supplementation with a specific combination of dietary polyphenols increases energy expenditure and alters substrate metabolism in overweight subjects. Int. J. Obes. (Lond.) 38, 698–706 (2014).

  138. 138.

    et al. Deep sequencing of plant and animal DNA contained within traditional Chinese medicines reveals legality issues and health safety concerns. PLoS Genet. 8, e1002657 (2012).

  139. 139.

    et al. Aristolochic acid-associated urothelial cancer in Taiwan. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 109, 8241–8246 (2012).

  140. 140.

    et al. Effect of Caralluma fimbriata extract on appetite, food intake and anthropometry in adult Indian men and women. Appetite 48, 338–344 (2007).

  141. 141.

    , & Satiereal, a Crocus sativus L extract, reduces snacking and increases satiety in a randomized placebo-controlled study of mildly overweight, healthy women. Nutr. Res. 30, 305–313 (2010).

  142. 142.

    et al. An herbal supplement containing Ma Huang-Guarana for weight loss: a randomized, double-blind trial. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 25, 316–324 (2001).

  143. 143.

    et al. A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat intake in overweight subjects. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 66, 449–455 (2010).

  144. 144.

    , & Reduction of adipose tissue and body weight: effect of water soluble calcium hydroxycitrate in Garcinia atroviridis on the short term treatment of obese women in Thailand. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 16, 25–29 (2007).

  145. 145.

    & Effect of a proprietary Magnolia and Phellodendron extract on weight management: a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Altern. Ther. Health Med. 12, 50–54 (2006).

  146. 146.

    , , , & The use of a Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination in the management of weight loss: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Lipids Health Dis. 7, 12 (2008).

  147. 147.

    et al. Effects of 15-d repeated consumption of Hoodia gordonii purified extract on safety. ad libitum energy intake, and body weight in healthy, overweight women: a randomized controlled trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 94, 1171–1181 (2011).

  148. 148.

    , , & The efficacy of Phaseolus vulgaris as a weight-loss supplement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. Br. J. Nutr. 106, 196–202 (2011).

  149. 149.

    et al. Effects of novel capsinoid treatment on fatness and energy metabolism in humans: possible pharmacogenetic implications. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 89, 45–50 (2009).

  150. 150.

    et al. Effects of dietary supplementation with epigallocatechin-3-gallate on weight loss, energy homeostasis, cardiometabolic risk factors and liver function in obese women: randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Br. J. Nutr. 111, 1263–1271 (2014).

  151. 151.

    , & The efficacy of glucomannan supplementation in overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 33, 70–78 (2014).

  152. 152.

    et al. Eight weeks of supplementation with a multi-ingredient weight loss product enhances body composition, reduces hip and waist girth, and increases energy levels in overweight men and women. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr. 10, 22 (2013).

  153. 153.

    , , , & Serum lipid and blood pressure responses to quercetin vary in overweight patients by apolipoprotein E genotype. J. Nutr. 140, 278–284 (2010).

  154. 154.

    et al. Green tea minimally affects biomarkers of inflammation in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. Nutrition 27, 206–213 (2011).

  155. 155.

    et al. Effects of catechin enriched green tea on body composition. Obesity (Silver Spring) 18, 773–779 (2010).

  156. 156.

    , & A green tea extract high in catechins reduces body fat and cardiovascular risks in humans. Obesity (Silver Spring) 15, 1473–1483 (2007).

  157. 157.

    et al. Improvements of mean body mass index and body weight in preobese and overweight Japanese adults with black Chinese tea (Pu-Erh) water extract. Nutr. Res. 31, 421–428 (2011).

  158. 158.

    et al. Positive effect of mushrooms substituted for meat on body weight, body composition, and health parameters. A 1-year randomized clinical trial. Appetite 71, 379–387 (2013).

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors' work is supported by the Primordia Institute of New Sciences and Medicine, by grants MOST103-2320-B-182-027-MY3 and MOST103-2321-B-182-014-MY3 from the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan, and grants CMRPD1B0053, CMRPD1C0782, CMRPD190303, BMRPA04 and QZRPD120 from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Center for Molecular and Clinical Immunology, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua First Road, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, Republic of China.

    • Jan Martel
    • , David M. Ojcius
    • , Chih-Jung Chang
    • , Chuan-Sheng Lin
    • , Hsin-Chih Lai
    •  & John D. Young
  2. Chang Gung Immunology Consortium, Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 5 Fu-Hsing Street, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan, Republic of China.

    • Jan Martel
    • , David M. Ojcius
    • , Chih-Jung Chang
    • , Chuan-Sheng Lin
    • , Yun-Fei Ko
    • , Shun-Fu Tseng
    • , Hsin-Chih Lai
    •  & John D. Young
  3. Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of the Pacific, Arthur Dugoni School of Dentistry, 155 Fifth Street, San Francisco, California 94103, USA.

    • David M. Ojcius
  4. Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua First Road, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, Republic of China.

    • Chih-Jung Chang
    • , Chuan-Sheng Lin
    •  & Hsin-Chih Lai
  5. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua First Road, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, Republic of China.

    • Chih-Jung Chang
    • , Chuan-Sheng Lin
    •  & Hsin-Chih Lai
  6. Research Center of Bacterial Pathogenesis, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hua First Road, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, Republic of China.

    • Chih-Jung Chang
    • , Chuan-Sheng Lin
    • , Shun-Fu Tseng
    •  & Hsin-Chih Lai
  7. Department of Respiratory Therapy, Fu Jen Catholic University, 510 Zhong-Zheng Street, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan, Republic of China.

    • Chia-Chen Lu
  8. Chang Gung Biotechnology Corporation, 201 Tung-Hua North Road, Taipei 10508, Taiwan, Republic of China.

    • Yun-Fei Ko
    •  & John D. Young
  9. Biochemical Engineering Research Center, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gungjuan Road, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan, Republic of China.

    • Yun-Fei Ko
    •  & John D. Young
  10. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 5 Fu-Hsing Street, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan, Republic of China.

    • Hsin-Chih Lai
  11. Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology, College of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, 261 Wen-Hua First Road, Taoyuan 33303, Taiwan, Republic of China.

    • Hsin-Chih Lai
  12. Graduate Institute of Health Industry and Technology, College of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, 261 Wen-Hua First Road, Taoyuan 33303, Taiwan, Republic of China.

    • Hsin-Chih Lai
  13. Laboratory of Cellular Physiology and Immunology, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA.

    • John D. Young

Authors

  1. Search for Jan Martel in:

  2. Search for David M. Ojcius in:

  3. Search for Chih-Jung Chang in:

  4. Search for Chuan-Sheng Lin in:

  5. Search for Chia-Chen Lu in:

  6. Search for Yun-Fei Ko in:

  7. Search for Shun-Fu Tseng in:

  8. Search for Hsin-Chih Lai in:

  9. Search for John D. Young in:

Contributions

J.M. and D.M.O. researched data for the article. J.M., D.M.O. and J.D.Y. wrote the article. All authors contributed to discussion of the content and reviewed and/or edited the manuscript before submission.

Competing interests

Y.F.K. is President of Chang Gung Biotechnology Corporation. J.D.Y. is Chairman of the Board of Chang Gung Biotechnology Corporation. The authors (with the exception of S.F.T.) have filed patent applications related to the anti-obesogenic and antidiabetic effects of mushroom polysaccharides.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to John D. Young.

Supplementary information

PDF files

  1. 1.

    Supplementary information S1 (figure)

    Active substances in plants and mushrooms with anti-obesogenic and antidiabetic effects.

Glossary

Insulin resistance

Pathological condition in which the body produces insulin but fails to adequately respond to it.

Traditional Chinese medicine

A system of medical treatments that has been practiced in China for at least 2,000 years, including herbal medicine, acupuncture, qigong and meditation.

Nutraceuticals

Dietary supplements or purified compounds that produce beneficial physiological effects on the human body, in addition to their nutritive values.

Gut microbiota

Community of microorganisms living in the gastrointestinal tract in animals and humans, which has been shown to participate in various physiological and pathological processes in the gut and systemically.

Phytochemicals

Bioactive plant components that can have physiological effects in the human body.

Endoplasmic reticulum

An organelle of eukaryotic cells that is involved in protein synthesis and sorting, and lipid synthesis and metabolism, as well as detoxification.

Endoplasmic-reticulum stress

Condition in which misfolded proteins accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to organelle dysfunction.

Leptin resistance

Pathological condition associated with obesity in which the body produces the hormone leptin, but fails to adequately respond to it.

Enterohepatic circulation

Circulation of bile acids from the liver to the small intestine, followed by absorption by enterocytes and transport back to the liver via the blood.

β-Oxidation

Catabolic process occurring in eukaryotic cells in which fatty acids are broken down to produce ATP and cellular metabolites.

Adipokines

Hormones secreted by adipocytes.

Glucotoxicity

Structural and functional damage to pancreatic β cells and the target tissues of insulin caused by chronic hyperglycaemia.

Intestinal tight junctions

Connections between two adjacent intestinal cells that limits the space between them and the passage of material from the intestinal lumen to the gut mucosa.

Prebiotics

Foods that are not digestible by humans, but promote the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the intestines.

About this article

Publication history

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nrendo.2016.142

Further reading