The term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) was introduced around the start of the new millennium and refers to the contribution of vascular pathology to any severity of cognitive impairment, ranging from subjective cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Although vascular pathology is common in elderly individuals with cognitive decline, pure vascular dementia (that is, dementia caused solely by vascular pathology) is uncommon. Indeed, most patients with vascular dementia also have other types of pathology, the most common of which is Alzheimer disease (specifically, the diffuse accumulation of amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of tau). At present, the main treatment for VCI is prevention by treating vascular diseases and other risk factors for VCI, such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Despite the current paucity of disease-modifying pharmacological treatments, we foresee that eventually, we might be able to target specific brain diseases to prevent cognitive decline and dementia.
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W.M.v.d.F. has been an invited speaker at Boehringer Ingelheim and has received grant support from Boehringer Ingelheim, Biogen MA Inc, Piramal Neuroimaging, Roche BV, Janssen Stellar and Combinostics. All funding is paid to her institution. I.S. has been a consultant for Takeda and has given paid lectures for Takeda in relation to vascular dementia. J.A.S. has been on the scientific advisory boards of Genentech, Eli Lilly and Grifols and has received consultancy fees from Navidea Biopharmaceuticals and the Michael J. Fox Foundation. C.L.H.C. has received research support from Moleac, Nutricia, Lundbeck, Eisai, GlaxoSmithKline and Merck. All funding is paid to his institution. P.S. has acquired grant support from GE Healthcare, Danone Research, Piramal and Merck and, in the past 2 years, has received consultancy and speaker fees from GE Healthcare, Novartis, Nutricia, Probiodrug, Biogen, Lundbeck, Roche and EIP Pharma. All funding is paid to his institution. All other authors declare no competing interests.
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