Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

How much do clinical trials cost?

This is a preview of subscription content

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Components of the costs of phase III trials.
Figure 2: Costs of clinical trials.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Linda Martin.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors of this article are employees of KMR group, a leading management consultancy that focuses on benchmarking, analytics and performance management for biopharmaceutical companies.

Supplementary information

Supplementary information S1 (box)

Data collection and analysis (PDF 157 kb)

PowerPoint slides

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Martin, L., Hutchens, M., Hawkins, C. et al. How much do clinical trials cost?. Nat Rev Drug Discov 16, 381–382 (2017).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

Further reading


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing