Table 4: Leading mRNA vaccine developers: research focus, partners and therapeutic platforms

From: mRNA vaccines — a new era in vaccinology

InstitutionmRNA technologyPartnersIndication (disease target)
Argos BiotechnologymRNA neoantigens (Arcelis platform)NAIndividualized cancer vaccines, HIV-1
BioNTech RNA Pharmaceuticals GmbHNucleoside-modified mRNA (IVAC Mutanome, FixVAC)Genentech/RocheIndividualized cancer vaccines
Bayer AGVeterinary vaccines
CureVac AGSequence-optimized, purified mRNA (RNActive, RNArt, RNAdjuvant)Boehringer Ingelheim GmbHCancer vaccines (lung cancer)
Johnson & JohnsonViral vaccines
Sanofi PasteurInfectious disease vaccines
BMGFInfectious disease vaccines
IAVIHIV vaccines
eTheRNA ImmunotherapiesPurified mRNA (TriMix)NACancer (melanoma, breast), viral vaccines (HBV and/or HPV)
GlaxoSmithKline/NovartisSelf-amplifying mRNA (SAM) (alphavirus replicon)NAInfectious disease vaccines
Moderna TherapeuticsNucleoside-modified mRNAMerck & Co.Individualized cancer vaccines, viral vaccines
BMGF, DARPA, BARDAViral vaccines (influenza virus, CMV, HMPV, PIV, chikungunya virus, Zika virus)
University of PennsylvaniaNucleoside-modified, purified mRNANAInfectious disease vaccines
  1. BARDA, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority; BMGF, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; CMV, cytomegalovirus; DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HMPV, human metapneumovirus; HPV, human papillomavirus; IAVI, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative; NA, not available; PIV, parainfluenza virus.