Table 3 Clinical trials with mRNA vaccines against cancer

From: mRNA vaccines — a new era in vaccinology

Sponsoring institution Vaccine type (route of administration) Targets Trial numbers (phase) Status
Antwerp University Hospital DC EP with TAA mRNA (i.d. or NA) AML • NCT00834002 (I)
• NCT01686334 (II)
• Completed206,207
• Recruiting
AML, CML, multiple myeloma NCT00965224 (II) Unknown
Multiple solid tumours NCT01291420 (I/II) Unknown208
Mesothelioma NCT02649829 (I/II) Recruiting
Glioblastoma NCT02649582 (I/II) Recruiting
Argos Therapeutics DC EP with autologous tumour mRNA with or without CD40L mRNA (i.d. or NA) Renal cell carcinoma • NCT01482949 (II)
• NCT00678119 (II)
• NCT00272649 (I/II)
• NCT01582672 (III)
• NCT00087984 (I/II)
• Ongoing
• Completed209
• Completed; results NA
• Ongoing
• Completed; results NA
Pancreatic cancer NCT00664482 (NA) Completed; results NA
Asterias Biotherapeutics DC loaded with TAA mRNA (NA) AML NCT00510133 (II) Completed210
BioNTech RNA Pharmaceuticals GmbH Naked TAA or neo-Ag mRNA (i.nod.) Melanoma • NCT01684241 (I)
• NCT02035956 (I)
• Completed; results NA
• Ongoing
Liposome-complexed TAA mRNA (i.v.) Melanoma NCT02410733 (I) Recruiting59
Liposome-formulated TAA and neo-Ag mRNA (i.v.) Breast cancer NCT02316457 (I) Recruiting
CureVac AG RNActive TAA mRNA (i.d.) Non-small-cell lung cancer • NCT00923312 (I/II)
• NCT01915524 (I)
• Completed211
• Terminated200
Prostate cancer • NCT02140138 (II)
• NCT00831467 (I/II)
• NCT01817738 (I/II)
• Terminated
• Completed151
• Terminated212
Duke University DC loaded with CMV Ag mRNA (i.d. or ing.) Glioblastoma, malignant glioma • NCT00626483 (I)
• NCT00639639 (I)
• NCT02529072 (I)
• NCT02366728 (II)
• Ongoing213
• Ongoing138,139
• Recruiting
• Recruiting
DC loaded with autologous tumour mRNA (i.d.) Glioblastoma NCT00890032 (I) Completed; results NA
DC, matured, loaded with TAA mRNA (i.nod.) Melanoma NCT01216436 (I) Terminated
Guangdong 999 Brain Hospital DC loaded with TAA mRNA (NA) Glioblastoma • NCT02808364 (I/II)
• NCT02709616 (I/II)
• Recruiting
• Recruiting
Brain metastases NCT02808416 (I/II) Recruiting
Herlev Hospital DC loaded with TAA mRNA (i.d.) Breast cancer, melanoma NCT00978913 (I) Completed214
Prostate cancer NCT01446731 (II) Completed215
Life Research Technologies GmbH DC, matured, loaded with TAA mRNA (NA) Ovarian cancer NCT01456065 (I) Unknown
Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich DC loaded with TAA and CMV Ag mRNA (i.d.) AML NCT01734304 (I/II) Recruiting
MD Anderson Cancer Center DC loaded with AML lysate and mRNA (NA) AML NCT00514189 (I) Terminated
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center DC (Langerhans) EP with TAA mRNA (i.d.) Melanoma NCT01456104 (I) Ongoing
Multiple myeloma NCT01995708 (I) Recruiting
Oslo University Hospital DC loaded with autologous tumour or TAA mRNA (i.d. or NA) Melanoma • NCT00961844 (I/II)
• NCT01278940 (I/II)
• Terminated
• Completed216
Prostate cancer • NCT01197625 (I/II)
• NCT01278914 (I/II)
• Recruiting
• Completed; results NA
Glioblastoma NCT00846456 (I/II) Completed217
Ovarian cancer NCT01334047 (I/II) Terminated
Radboud University DC EP with TAA mRNA (i.d. and i.v. or i.nod) Colorectal cancer NCT00228189 (I/II) Completed218
Melanoma • NCT00929019 (I/II)
• NCT00243529 (I/II)
• NCT00940004 (I/II)
• NCT01530698 (I/II)
• NCT02285413 (II)
• Terminated
• Completed219,220
• Completed220,221
• Completed144,220,221
• Completed; results NA
Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel DC EP with TAA and TriMix mRNA (i.d. and i.v.) Melanoma • NCT01066390 (I)
• NCT01302496 (II)
• NCT01676779 (II)
• Completed137
• Completed140
• Completed; results NA
University Hospital Erlangen DC, matured, loaded with autologous tumour RNA (i.v.) Melanoma NCT01983748 (III) Recruiting
University Hospital Tübingen Autologous tumour mRNA with GM-CSF protein (i.d. and s.c.) Melanoma NCT00204516 (I/II) Completed222
Protamine-complexed TAA mRNA with GM-CSF protein (i.d. and s.c.) Melanoma NCT00204607 (I/II) Completed150
University of Campinas, Brazil DC loaded with TAA mRNA (NA) AML, myelodysplastic syndromes NCT03083054 (I/II) Recruiting
University of Florida RNActive* TAA mRNA (i.d.) Prostate cancer NCT00906243 (I/II) Terminated
DC loaded with CMV Ag mRNA with GM-CSF protein (i.d.) Glioblastoma, malignant glioma NCT02465268 (II) Recruiting
  1. The table summarizes the clinical trials registered at as of 5 May 2017. Ag, antigen; AML, acute myeloid leukaemia; CD40L, CD40 ligand; CML, chronic myeloid leukaemia; CMV, cytomegalovirus; DC, dendritic cell; EP, electroporated; GM-CSF, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor; i.d., intradermal; ing., inguinal injection; i.nod., intranodal injection; i.v., intravenous; NA, not available; neo-Ag, personalized neoantigen; s.c., subcutaneous; TAA, tumour-associated antigen.
  2. *Developed by CureVac AG.
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