Figure 1: Generations of cancer vaccine antigens. | Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology

Figure 1: Generations of cancer vaccine antigens.

From: Cancer vaccines on the move

Figure 1

Early clinical studies used whole cancer cell preparations (for example, tumour lysates) as the source of tumour antigens, comprising a mixture of self-antigens and undefined neoantigens. These vaccines elicited broad immune responses, possibly not reaching a critical threshold for the frequency of anticancer T cells needed for clinical efficacy. The next stage of cancer vaccine development was focused on purified self-antigens, the use of which requires breaking of T-cell tolerance. Most recently, defined neoantigens have been pursued as drivers of a focused immune response that enables the critical thresholds for the frequency of anticancer T cells and clinical efficacy to be reached.

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