Amin, M. et al. Complementary medicine use in patients with head and neck cancer in Ireland. Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol. 267, 1291–1297 (2010).
Navo, M. A. et al. An assessment of the utilization of complementary and alternative medication in women with gynecologic or breast malignancies. J. Clin. Oncol. 22, 671–677 (2004).
Vapiwala, N., Mick, R., Hampshire, M. K., Metz, J. M. & DeNittis, A. S. Patient initiation of complementary and alternative medical therapies (CAM) following cancer diagnosis. Cancer J. 12, 467–474 (2006).
Molassiotis, A. et al. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in cancer patients: a European survey. Ann. Oncol. 16, 655–663 (2005).
Hyodo, I. et al. Nationwide survey on complementary and alternative medicine in cancer patients in Japan. J. Clin. Oncol. 23, 2645–2654 (2005).
Moran, M. S. et al. A prospective, multicenter study of complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) utilization during definitive radiation for breast cancer. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 85, 40–46 (2013).
Gansler, T., Kaw, C., Crammer, C. & Smith, T. A population-based study of prevalence of complementary methods use by cancer survivors: a report from the American Cancer Society's studies of cancer survivors. Cancer 113, 1048–1057 (2008).
Nahin, R. L., Barnes, P. M., Stussman, B. J. & Bloom, B. Costs of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and frequency of visits to CAM practitioners: United States, 2007. Natl Health Stat. Report, 1–14 (2009).
Barnes, P. M., Bloom, B. & Nahin, R. L. Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States, 2007. Natl Health Stat. Report, 1–23 (2008).
Barton, D. Integrative medicine: not just garnish. ONCOLOGY Nurse Ed. 26 (2012).
Rosenthal, D. S. & Doherty-Gilman, A. M. Integrative medicine and cancer care. Virtual Mentor 13, 379–383 (2011).
Elkins, G., Fisher, W. & Johnson, A. Mind–body therapies in integrative oncology. Curr. Treat. Options Oncol. 11, 128–140 (2010).
Shennan, C., Payne, S. & Fenlon, D. What is the evidence for the use of mindfulness-based interventions in cancer care? A review. Psychooncology 20, 681–697 (2011).
Ledesma, D. & Kumano, H. Mindfulness-based stress reduction and cancer: a meta-analysis. Psychooncology 18, 571–579 (2009).
Cramer, H., Lauche, R., Paul, A. & Dobos, G. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for breast cancer-a systematic review and meta-analysis. Curr. Oncol. 19, e343–e352 (2012).
Zainal, N. Z., Booth, S. & Huppert, F. A. The efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction on mental health of breast cancer patients: a meta-analysis. Psychooncology 22, 1457–1465 (2013).
Piet, J., Würtzen, H. & Zachariae, R. The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on symptoms of anxiety and depression in adult cancer patients and survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 80, 1007–1020 (2012).
Fjorback, L. O., Arendt, M., Ornbøl, E., Fink, P. & Walach, H. Mindfulness-based stress reduction and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 124, 102–119 (2011).
Lin, K. Y., Hu, Y. T., Chang, K. J., Lin, H. F. & Tsauo, J. Y. Effects of yoga on psychological health, quality of life, and physical health of patients with cancer: a meta-analysis. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2011, 659876 (2011).
Smith, K. B. & Pukall, C. F. An evidence-based review of yoga as a complementary intervention for patients with cancer. Psychooncology 18, 465–475 (2009).
Chan, C. L. et al. A systematic review of the effectiveness of qigong exercise in supportive cancer care. Support. Care Cancer 20, 1121–1133 (2012).
Bhasin, M. K. et al. Relaxation response induces temporal transcriptome changes in energy metabolism, insulin secretion and inflammatory pathways. PLoS ONE 8, e62817 (2013).
Saatcioglu, F. Regulation of gene expression by yoga, meditation and related practices: a review of recent studies. Asian J. Psychiatr. 6, 74–77 (2013).
Davidson, R. J. & McEwen, B. S. Social influences on neuroplasticity: stress and interventions to promote well-being. Nat. Neurosci. 15, 689–695 (2012).
Kaptchuk, T. J. Acupuncture: theory, efficacy, and practice. Ann. Intern. Med. 136, 374–383 (2002).
Langevin, H. M. & Yandow, J. A. Relationship of acupuncture points and meridians to connective tissue planes. Anat. Rec. 269, 257–265 (2002).
Ahn, A. C. et al. Electrical properties of acupuncture points and meridians: a systematic review. Bioelectromagnetics 29, 245–256 (2008).
Huang, W. et al. Characterizing acupuncture stimuli using brain imaging with FMRI—a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. PLoS ONE 7, e32960 (2012).
Han, J. S. Acupuncture analgesia: areas of consensus and controversy. Pain 152 (Suppl. 3), S41–S48 (2011).
Moffet, H. H. How might acupuncture work? A systematic review of physiologic rationales from clinical trials. BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 6, 25 (2006).
Stone, J. A. & Johnstone, P. A. Mechanisms of action for acupuncture in the oncology setting. Curr. Treat. Options Oncol. 11, 118–127 (2010).
Garcia, M. K. et al. Systematic review of acupuncture in cancer care: a synthesis of the evidence. J. Clin. Oncol. 31, 952–960 (2013).
Ezzo, J. M. et al. Acupuncture-point stimulation for chemotherapy-induced nausea or vomiting. Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD002285 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002285.pub2.
Vickers, A. J. et al. Acupuncture for chronic pain: individual patient data meta-analysis. Arch. Intern. Med. 172, 1444–1453 (2012).
Lee, M. S. & Ernst, E. Acupuncture for pain: an overview of Cochrane reviews. Chin. J. Integr. Med. 17, 187–189 (2011).
Pfister, D. G. et al. Acupuncture for pain and dysfunction after neck dissection: results of a randomized controlled trial. J. Clin. Oncol. 28, 2565–2570 (2010).
Deng, G. et al. Randomized, controlled trial of acupuncture for the treatment of hot flashes in breast cancer patients. J. Clin. Oncol. 25, 5584–5590 (2007).
Carpenter, J. S. & Neal, J. G. Other complementary and alternative medicine modalities: acupuncture, magnets, reflexology, and homeopathy. Am. J. Med. 118 (Suppl. 12B), 109–117 (2005).
Lee, M. S., Shin, B. C. & Ernst, E. Acupuncture for treating menopausal hot flushes: a systematic review. Climacteric 12, 16–25 (2009).
Cassileth, B. R. et al. Acupuncture in the treatment of upper-limb lymphedema: results of a pilot study. Cancer 119, 2455–2461 (2013).
Cao, H., Pan, X., Li, H. & Liu, J. Acupuncture for treatment of insomnia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 15, 1171–1186 (2009).
Pilkington, K., Kirkwood, G., Rampes, H., Cummings, M. & Richardson, J. Acupuncture for anxiety and anxiety disorders—a systematic literature review. Acupunct. Med. 25, 1–10 (2007).
Wang, S. M. & Kain, Z. N. Auricular acupuncture: a potential treatment for anxiety. Anesth. Analg. 92, 548–553 (2001).
Eich, H., Agelink, M. W., Lehmann, E., Lemmer, W. & Klieser, E. Acupuncture in patients with minor depressive episodes and generalized anxiety. Results of an experimental study [German]. Fortschr. Neurol. Psychiatr. 68, 137–144 (2000).
Melchart, D. et al. Prospective investigation of adverse effects of acupuncture in 97,733 patients. Arch. Intern. Med. 164, 104–105 (2004).
Fritz, S. Mosby's Fundamentals of Therapeutic Massage, 5e (Mosby, 2012).
Ernst, E. Massage therapy for cancer palliation and supportive care: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Support. Care Cancer 17, 333–337 (2009).
Wilkinson, S., Barnes, K. & Storey, L. Massage for symptom relief in patients with cancer: systematic review. J. Adv. Nurs. 63, 430–439 (2008).
Ernst, E. The safety of massage therapy. Rheumatology (Oxford) 42, 1101–1106 (2003).
Corbin, L. Safety and efficacy of massage therapy for patients with cancer. Cancer Control 12, 158–164 (2005).
Cassileth, B. R. Sounding boards. After laetrile, what? N. Engl. J. Med. 306, 1482–1484 (1982).
Milazzo, S., Ernst, E., Lejeune, S., Boehm, K. & Horneber, M. Laetrile treatment for cancer. Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD005476 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005476.pub3.
Milazzo, S., Lejeune, S. & Ernst, E. Laetrile for cancer: a systematic review of the clinical evidence. Support. Care Cancer 15, 583–595 (2007).
Kalyanaraman, U. P., Kalyanaraman, K., Cullinan, S. A. & McLean, J. M. Neuromyopathy of cyanide intoxication due to “laetrile” (amygdalin). A clinicopathologic study. Cancer 51, 2126–2133 (1983).
Cesium carbonate & cesium chloride kills cancer cells. The Natural Cures Website They Don't Want You to Know About [online], (2012).
Wiens, M. et al. Cesium chloride-induced torsades de pointes. Can. J. Cardiol. 25, e329–e331 (2009).
Pinter, A., Dorian, P. & Newman, D. Cesium-induced torsades de pointes. N. Engl. J. Med. 346, 383–384 (2002).
Cassileth, B. The Complete Guide to Complementary Therapies in Cancer Care: Essential Information for Patients, Survivors and Health Professionals (World Scientific Publishing Company, 2011).
Abdelwahab, M. G. et al. The ketogenic diet is an effective adjuvant to radiation therapy for the treatment of malignant glioma. PLoS ONE 7, e36197 (2012).
US National Library of Medicine. ClinicalTrials.gov [online], (2012).
US National Library of Medicine. ClinicalTrials.gov [online], (2012).
US National Library of Medicine. ClinicalTrials.gov [online], (2012).
Demark-Wahnefried, W., Rock, C. L., Patrick, K. & Byers, T. Lifestyle interventions to reduce cancer risk and improve outcomes. Am. Fam. Physician 77, 1573–1578 (2008).
Holick, C. N. et al. Physical activity and survival after diagnosis of invasive breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 17, 379–386 (2008).
Holmes, M. D., Chen, W. Y., Feskanich, D., Kroenke, C. H. & Colditz, G. A. Physical activity and survival after breast cancer diagnosis. JAMA 293, 2479–2486 (2005).
Lin, M. R., Hwang, H. F., Wang, Y. W., Chang, S. H. & Wolf, S. L. Community-based tai chi and its effect on injurious falls, balance, gait, and fear of falling in older people. Phys. Ther. 86, 1189–1201 (2006).
Faber, M. J., Bosscher, R. J., Chin A., Paw, M. J. & van Wieringen, P. C. Effects of exercise programs on falls and mobility in frail and pre-frail older adults: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 87, 885–896 (2006).
Kaelin, W. G. Jr & Thompson, C. B. Q&A: Cancer: clues from cell metabolism. Nature 465, 562–564 (2010).
Doyle, C. et al. Nutrition and physical activity during and after cancer treatment: an American Cancer Society guide for informed choices. CA Cancer J. Clin. 56, 323–353 (2006).
Mann, J. Natural products in cancer chemotherapy: past, present and future. Nat. Rev. Cancer 2, 143–148 (2002).
Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center. Integrative Medicine Search About Herbs [online], (2013).
Shanafelt, T. D. et al. Phase 2 trial of daily, oral polyphenon E in patients with asymptomatic, Rai stage 0 to II chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer 119, 363–370 (2013).
Crew, K. D. et al. Phase IB randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, dose escalation study of polyphenon E in women with hormone receptor-negative breast cancer. Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5, 1144–1154 (2012).
Yee, L. D. et al. ω3 fatty acid supplements in women at high risk of breast cancer have dose-dependent effects on breast adipose tissue fatty acid composition. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 91, 1185–1194 (2010).
Bougnoux, P. et al. Improving outcome of chemotherapy of metastatic breast cancer by docosahexaenoic acid: a phase II trial. Br. J. Cancer 101, 1978–1985 (2009).
Golombick, T., Diamond, T. H., Manoharan, A. & Ramakrishna, R. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering multiple myeloma, and curcumin: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over 4 g study and an open-label 8g extension study. Am. J. Hematol. 87, 455–460 (2012).
Mathijssen, R. H., Verweij, J., de Bruijn, P., Loos, W. J. & Sparreboom, A. Effects of St John's wort on irinotecan metabolism. J. Natl Cancer Inst. 94, 1247–1249 (2002).
Klein, E. A. et al. Vitamin E and the risk of prostate cancer: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA 306, 1549–1556 (2011).
Lippman, S. M. et al. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA 301, 39–51 (2009).
Bairati, I. et al. Randomized trial of antioxidant vitamins to prevent acute adverse effects of radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. J. Clin. Oncol. 23, 5805–5813 (2005).
Deng, G., Davatgarzadeh, A., Yeung, S. & Cassileth, B. Phytoestrogens: science, evidence, and advice for breast cancer patients. J. Soc. Integr. Oncol. 8, 20–30 (2010).
Izzo, A. A. & Ernst, E. Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: an updated systematic review. Drugs 69, 1777–1798 (2009).
Verhoef, M. J., Rose, M. S., White, M. & Balneaves, L. G. Declining conventional cancer treatment and using complementary and alternative medicine: a problem or a challenge? Curr. Oncol. 15 (Suppl. 2), s101–s106 (2008).
Verhoef, M. J., Balneaves, L. G., Boon, H. S. & Vroegindewey, A. Reasons for and characteristics associated with complementary and alternative medicine use among adult cancer patients: a systematic review. Integr. Cancer Ther. 4, 274–286 (2005).
Page, S. A., Mannion, C., Bell, L. H. & Verhoef, M. J. CAM information online: an audit of Internet information on the “Bill Henderson Protocol”. Complement. Ther. Med. 18, 206–214 (2010).
Saxe, G. A. et al. Disclosure to physicians of CAM use by breast cancer patients: findings from the Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study. Integr. Cancer Ther. 7, 122–129 (2008).
Tasaki, K., Maskarinec, G., Shumay, D. M., Tatsumura, Y. & Kakai, H. Communication between physicians and cancer patients about complementary and alternative medicine: exploring patients' perspectives. Psychooncology 11, 212–220 (2002).
Robinson, A. & McGrail, M. R. Disclosure of CAM use to medical practitioners: a review of qualitative and quantitative studies. Complement. Ther. Med. 12, 90–98 (2004).
Richardson, M. A., Mâsse, L. C., Nanny, K. & Sanders, C. Discrepant views of oncologists and cancer patients on complementary/alternative medicine. Support. Care Cancer 12, 797–804 (2004).
Amschwand Sarcoma Cancer Foundation [online], (2013).
Temel, J. S. et al. Early palliative care for patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 733–742 (2010).
Peppercorn, J. M. et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology statement: toward individualized care for patients with advanced cancer. J. Clin. Oncol. 29, 755–760 (2011).
Cohen, L., Cohen, M. H., Kirkwood, C. & Russell, N. C. Discussing complementary therapies in an oncology setting. J. Soc. Integr. Oncol. 5, 18–24 (2007).
Schofield, P., Diggens, J., Charleson, C., Marigliani, R. & Jefford, M. Effectively discussing complementary and alternative medicine in a conventional oncology setting: communication recommendations for clinicians. Patient Educ. Couns. 79, 143–151 (2010).
Koithan, M., Bell, I. R., Caspi, O., Ferro, L. & Brown, V. Patients' experiences and perceptions of a consultative model integrative medicine clinic: a qualitative study. Integr. Cancer Ther. 6, 174–184 (2007).
Verhoef, M. J., Mulkins, A. & Boon, H. Integrative health care: how can we determine whether patients benefit? J. Altern. Complement. Med. 11 (Suppl. 1), S57–S65 (2005).
Eisenberg, D. M. Advising patients who seek alternative medical therapies. Ann. Intern. Med. 127, 61–69 (1997).
Weiger, W. A. et al. Advising patients who seek complementary and alternative medical therapies for cancer. Ann. Intern. Med. 137, 889–903 (2002).
Ben-Arye, E. et al. Integrating complementary medicine in supportive cancer care models across four continents. Med. Oncol. 30, 511 (2013).
The Society for Integrative Oncology [online], (2013).
Cassileth, B. R. et al. Complementary therapies and integrative oncology in lung cancer: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edn). Chest 132, 340S–354S (2007).
Deng, G. E. et al. Complementary therapies and integrative medicine in lung cancer: diagnosis and management of lung cancer, 3rd edn: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest 143 (Suppl. 5), e420S–e436S (2013).
Deng, G. E. et al. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for integrative oncology: complementary therapies and botanicals. J. Soc. Integr. Oncol. 7, 85–120 (2009).
Meyer, F. et al. Interaction between antioxidant vitamin supplementation and cigarette smoking during radiation therapy in relation to long-term effects on recurrence and mortality: a randomized trial among head and neck cancer patients. Int. J. Cancer 122, 1679–1683 (2008).