Opinion | Published:

Predictive, personalized, preventive, participatory (P4) cancer medicine

Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology volume 8, pages 184187 (2011) | Download Citation

Abstract

Medicine will move from a reactive to a proactive discipline over the next decade—a discipline that is predictive, personalized, preventive and participatory (P4). P4 medicine will be fueled by systems approaches to disease, emerging technologies and analytical tools. There will be two major challenges to achieving P4 medicine—technical and societal barriers—and the societal barriers will prove the most challenging. How do we bring patients, physicians and members of the health-care community into alignment with the enormous opportunities of P4 medicine? In part, this will be done by the creation of new types of strategic partnerships—between patients, large clinical centers, consortia of clinical centers and patient-advocate groups. For some clinical trials it will necessary to recruit very large numbers of patients—and one powerful approach to this challenge is the crowd-sourced recruitment of patients by bringing large clinical centers together with patient-advocate groups.

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Author information

Affiliations

  1. Institute for Systems Biology, 1441 North 34th Street, Seattle, WA 98103, USA.

    • Leroy Hood
  2.  Sage Bionetworks, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.

    • Stephen H. Friend

Authors

  1. Search for Leroy Hood in:

  2. Search for Stephen H. Friend in:

Contributions

Both authors contributed to researching the data for the article, discussion of content, and writing and reviewing the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Leroy Hood.

About this article

Publication history

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nrclinonc.2010.227

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