Inflammation and its failure to resolve are firmly established as central to the development and complications of several cardiovascular diseases
Targeting of inflammatory processes in experimental models has been demonstrated to be beneficial in attenuating myocardial and arterial injury, reducing disease progression, and promoting healing, but clinical translation has been disappointing
Current tools to measure 'inflammation' are nonspecific and represent downstream sequelae of biological processes, but provide little insight into disease state, site, or activation pathways
Contemporary molecular techniques (such as proteomics and gene-expression analysis) improve our ability to characterize underlying biological processes, and identify activation pathways as biomarkers and as a basis to develop new therapeutics
Noninvasive imaging tools enable the identification of activation of specific pathways and their sites, and can be used to monitor response to therapy
Inflammatory processes are firmly established as central to the development and complications of cardiovascular diseases. Elevated levels of inflammatory markers have been shown to be predictive of future cardiovascular events. The specific targeting of these processes in experimental models has been shown to attenuate myocardial and arterial injury, reduce disease progression, and promote healing. However, the translation of these observations and the demonstration of clear efficacy in clinical practice have been disappointing. A major limitation might be that tools currently used to measure 'inflammation' are insufficiently precise and do not provide information about disease site and activity, or discriminate between functionally important activation pathways. The challenge, therefore, is to make measures of inflammation that are more meaningful, and which can guide specific targeted therapies. In this Review, we consider the roles of inflammatory processes in the related pathologies of atherosclerosis and acute myocardial infarction, by providing an evaluation of the known and emerging inflammatory pathways. We highlight contemporary techniques to characterize and quantify inflammation, and consider how they might be used to guide specific treatments. Finally, we discuss emerging opportunities in the field, including their current limitations and challenges that are the focus of ongoing study.
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The authors acknowledge funding from the British Heart Foundation Oxford Centre for Research Excellence (N.R., R.P.C.), Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (R.P.C.), and US National Institutes of Health (E.A.F.).
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Ruparelia, N., Chai, J., Fisher, E. et al. Inflammatory processes in cardiovascular disease: a route to targeted therapies. Nat Rev Cardiol 14, 133–144 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrcardio.2016.185
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