A growing body of evidence suggests that both atrial fibrillation (AF) and right ventricular arrhythmia can be the result of intense exercise among highly trained athletes
The risk of AF conferred by exercise progressively increases with the intensity of exercise
Parasympathetic tone enhancement and atrial structural remodelling (that is, atrial dilatation and fibrosis) are progressively being recognized as contributors to increased exercise-induced proarrhythmogenic risk
The most appropriate approach for treating exercise-induced AF remains unknown
The evidence for a pure exercise-induced arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is limited, but several studies have indicated that regular exercise is an important promoter of ARVC progression
For athletes who fulfil ARVC criteria, guidelines published by scientific societies prohibit competitive sports and encourage avoidance of high-intensity dynamic sports in general
The cardiovascular benefits of physical activity are indisputable. Nevertheless, growing evidence suggests that both atrial fibrillation and right ventricular arrhythmia can be caused by intense exercise in some individuals. Exercise-induced atrial fibrillation is most commonly diagnosed in middle-aged, otherwise healthy men who have been engaged in endurance training for >10 years, and is mediated by atrial dilatation, parasympathetic enhancement, and possibly atrial fibrosis. Cardiac ablation is evolving as a first-line tool for athletes with exercise-induced arrhythmia who are eager to remain active. The relationship between physical activity and right ventricular arrhythmia is complex and involves genetic and physical factors that, in a few athletes, eventually lead to right ventricular dilatation, followed by subsequent myocardial fibrosis and lethal ventricular arrhythmias. Sinus bradycardia and atrioventricular conduction blocks are common in athletes, most of whom remain asymptomatic, although incomplete reversibility has been shown after exercise cessation. In this Review, we summarize the evidence supporting the existence of exercise-induced arrhythmias and discuss the specific considerations for the clinical management of these patients.
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The authors have received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under grant agreement 633196 (CATCH ME project) and from Instituto de Salud Carlos III — Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias (PI13/01580 and PI16/00703).
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Guasch, E., Mont, L. Diagnosis, pathophysiology, and management of exercise-induced arrhythmias. Nat Rev Cardiol 14, 88–101 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrcardio.2016.173
Recommendations for participation in leisure-time physical activity and competitive sports in patients with arrhythmias and potentially arrhythmogenic conditions: Part 1: Supraventricular arrhythmias. A position statement of the Section of Sports Cardiology and Exercise from the European Association of Preventive Cardiology (EAPC) and the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), both associations of the European Society of Cardiology
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