Cheung, F. S., Lovicu, F. J. & Reichardt, J. K. Current progress in using vitamin D and its analogs for cancer prevention and treatment. Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther. 12, 811–837 (2012).
This is an extensive and detailed review of the vitamin D hypothesis for cancer prevention and treatment.
Gocek, E. & Studzinski, G. P. Vitamin D and differentiation in cancer. Crit. Rev. Clin. Lab Sci. 46, 190–209 (2009).
Krishnan, A. V. & Feldman, D. Mechanisms of the anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory actions of vitamin D. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 51, 311–336 (2011).
Krishnan, A. V., Swami, S. & Feldman, D. Vitamin D and breast cancer: inhibition of estrogen synthesis and signaling. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 121, 343–348 (2010).
Krishnan, A. V., Trump, D. L., Johnson, C. S. & Feldman, D. The role of vitamin D in cancer prevention and treatment. Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am. 39, 401–418 (2010).
This is a recent review of the evidence for and against the role of vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of cancer.
Leyssens, C., Verlinden, L. & Verstuyf, A. Antineoplastic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogs in breast, prostate and colorectal cancer. Endocr. Relat. Cancer 20, R31–R47 (2013).
Mehta, R. G., Peng, X., Alimirah, F., Murillo, G. & Mehta, R. Vitamin D and breast cancer: Emerging concepts. Cancer Lett. 334, 95–100 (2013).
Pereira, F., Larriba, M. J. & Munoz, A. Vitamin D and colon cancer. Endocr. Relat. Cancer 19, R51–R71 (2012).
This is a recent review of the mechanism of action of calcitriol and the evidence for a role of vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of colon cancer.
Rosen, C. J. et al. The nonskeletal effects of vitamin D: an Endocrine Society scientific statement. Endocr. Rev. 33, 456–492 (2012).
This paper contains the opinions of an expert committee appointed by the Endocrine Society to evaluate the role of vitamin D in non-skeletal actions and diseases.
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Trump, D. L., Deeb, K. K. & Johnson, C. S. Vitamin D: considerations in the continued development as an agent for cancer prevention and therapy. Cancer J. 16, 1–9 (2010).
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Feldman, D., Pike, J. W. & Adams, J. S. Vitamin D (Elsevier Academic Press, 2011).
This is a multi-authored two-volume tome, which covers all aspects of vitamin D synthesis, metabolism, mechanism of action and clinical applications, with a large section of the book devoted to the effects of vitamin D on multiple cancers. Each of the many chapters is written by acknowledged experts in their areas.
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This is an extensive review of vitamin D synthesis, metabolism and action, with a focus on the causes and extent of worldwide vitamin D deficiency.
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Institute of Medicine Report. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. (Institute of Medicine, 2011).
This is the full IOM report that details a large number of studies regarding vitamin D deficiency and daily requirements. The report deals with the evidence for and against a role for vitamin D in skeletal and non-skeletal diseases and gives guidelines for establishing cut-off points for vitamin D deficiency.
Holick, M. F. et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 96, 1911–1930 (2011).
These are the Endocrine Society guidelines, which differ in some respects from the IOM conclusions.
Jones, G., Prosser, D. E. & Kaufmann, M. Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of vitamin D. J. Lipid Res. 55, 13–31 (2014).
This is a detailed report on the nature and actions of the crucial enzymes that regulate the synthesis and degradation of vitamin D.
Zhu, J. & DeLuca, H. F. Vitamin D 25-hydroxylase — Four decades of searching, are we there yet? Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 523, 30–36 (2012).
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This is a complete summary of the IOM opinion about the daily requirements of vitamin D, the cut-off point for vitamin D deficiency, the incidence of vitamin D deficiency and the opinion of the committee about the evidence for the efficacy of vitamin D in preventing or treating skeletal and non-skeletal diseases.
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Deeb, K. K., Trump, D. L. & Johnson, C. S. Vitamin D signalling pathways in cancer: potential for anticancer therapeutics. Nature Rev. Cancer 7, 684–700 (2007).
This is an extensive review of vitamin D signalling pathways.
Fleet, J. C., DeSmet, M., Johnson, R. & Li, Y. Vitamin D and cancer: a review of molecular mechanisms. Biochem. J. 441, 61–76 (2012).
Haussler, M. R. et al. Molecular mechanisms of vitamin D action. Calcif. Tissue Int. 92, 77–98 (2013).
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Hobaus, J., Thiem, U., Hummel, D. M. & Kallay, E. Role of calcium, vitamin d, and the extrarenal vitamin d hydroxylases in carcinogenesis. Anticancer Agents Med. Chem. 13, 20–35 (2013).
Adams, J. S. & Hewison, M. Extrarenal expression of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1-hydroxylase. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 523, 95–102 (2012).
This is an excellent review of the presence and importance of extrarenal CYP27B1 for the extraskeletal actions of vitamin D.
Wang, L. et al. Regulation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase by epidermal growth factor in prostate cells. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 89–90, 127–130 (2004).
White, J. H. Regulation of intracrine production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and its role in innate immune defense against infection. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 523, 58–63 (2012).
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Ly, L. H., Zhao, X. Y., Holloway, L. & Feldman, D. Liarozole acts synergistically with 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to inhibit growth of DU 145 human prostate cancer cells by blocking 24-hydroxylase activity. Endocrinology 140, 2071–2076 (1999).
Swami, S., Krishnan, A. V., Peehl, D. M. & Feldman, D. Genistein potentiates the growth inhibitory effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) in DU145 human prostate cancer cells: Role of the direct inhibition of CYP24 enzyme activity. Mol. Cell Endocrinol. 12, 12 (2005).
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Written by experts, this paper discusses both the classical genomic and non-genomic actions of calcitriol and describes the mechanisms underlying these effects.
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This is the first study to demonstrate an anticancer effect of calcitriol in cultured cells; it shows that calcitriol inhibited the proliferation of malignant melanoma cells.
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This study, which was published in the same year as reference 59, showed a beneficial differentiating effect of calcitriol on mouse myeloid leukaemia cells, thereby providing evidence that calcitriol had anticancer activity in a second malignancy.
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This study shows the inhibitory actions of vitamin D on cells that might be the prostate cancer stem cells.
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