The four colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) are glycoproteins that regulate the generation and some functions of infection-protective granulocytes and macrophages. Recombinant granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF) and granulocyte–macrophage-CSF (GM-CSF) have now been used to increase dangerously low white blood cell levels in many millions of cancer patients following chemotherapy. These CSFs also release haematopoietic stem cells to the peripheral blood, and these cells have now largely replaced bone marrow as more effective populations for transplantation to cancer patients who have treatment-induced bone marrow damage.
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The author is indebted to grant support from the Cancer Council of Victoria; the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda grant number CA22556; and the National Health and Medical Research Council, Canberra, program grant number 461219.
The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research and the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research (Melbourne) share the patent for GM-CSF and the institutes and staff members obtain royalties from its sale.
Severely reduced cellular content
The change, usually irreversible, when a multipotent cell generates or becomes a cell that expresses membrane markers and a gene programme restricting the cell to a particular lineage
- Conditioned medium
Medium harvested after incubation of cultured cells or tissues
- Febrile neutropenia
Condition of abnormally low blood neutrophil levels plus fever
A change rendering cells capable of proliferation for prolonged (perhaps unlimited) time periods, usually the cells are not neoplastic
A subfamily of one type of haematopoietic cell
The sequence of morphological and biochemical changes during which immature cells generate or become mature cells
- Socs family
A family of cytokine (regulator)-induced cytoplasmic inhibitors of signalling from regulator-activated membrane receptors
Enhanced cellular responses when two or more regulators interact on target cells
Abnormally low blood platelet levels
Usually indicating an irreversible change from normal to neoplastic cells
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Metcalf, D. The colony-stimulating factors and cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 10, 425–434 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrc2843
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