Comment

Tumour budding in colorectal cancer: molecular rationale for clinical translation

Precision medicine and personalized health care call for reproducible and standardized predictive and prognostic biomarkers that can influence the clinical management of patients with cancer. In colorectal cancer, tumour budding — a histological manifestation of tumour cell invasion that is likened to epithelial–mesenchymal transition — is now emerging as one such factor.

  • Subscribe to Nature Reviews Cancer for full access:

    $265

    Subscribe

Additional access options:

Already a subscriber?  Log in  now or  Register  for online access.

References

  1. 1.

    et al. Recommendations for reporting tumor budding in colorectal cancer based on the International Tumor Budding Consensus Conference (ITBCC) 2016. Mod. Pathol. 30, 1299–1311 (2017).

  2. 2.

    et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of tumour budding in colorectal cancer. Br. J. Cancer 115, 831–840 (2016).

  3. 3.

    , , , & Tumor budding: the name is EMT. Partial EMT. J. Clin. Med. (2016).

  4. 4.

    et al. Expression profiling of budding cells in colorectal cancer reveals an EMT-like phenotype and molecular subtype switching. Br. J. Cancer 116, 58–65 (2017).

  5. 5.

    , , , & MicroRNA-200b is downregulated in colon cancer budding cells. PLOS One 12, e0178564 (2017).

  6. 6.

    et al. TWIST1 and TWIST2 promoter methylation and protein expression in tumor stroma influence the epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like tumor budding phenotype in colorectal cancer. Oncotarget 6, 874–885 (2015).

  7. 7.

    et al. Cancer cell invasion and EMT marker expression: a three-dimensional study of the human cancer-host interface. J. Pathol. 234, 410–422 (2014).

  8. 8.

    et al. DNA profiling of tumor buds in colorectal cancer indicates that they have the same mutation profile as the tumor from which they derive. Virchows Arch. 470, 341–346 (2017).

  9. 9.

    et al. CD8+ lymphocytes/ tumour-budding index: an independent prognostic factor representing a 'pro-/anti-tumour' approach to tumour host interaction in colorectal cancer. Br. J. Cancer 101, 1382–1392 (2009).

  10. 10.

    , , , & Opinion: migrating cancer stem cells — an integrated concept of malignant tumour progression. Nat. Rev. Cancer 5, 744–749 (2005).

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge J. R. Jass, our friend and mentor who inspired much of the original works on tumour budding in CRC, as well as our colleagues from the International Tumour Budding Consensus Conference.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Institute of Pathology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

    • Inti Zlobec
    •  & Alessandro Lugli

Authors

  1. Search for Inti Zlobec in:

  2. Search for Alessandro Lugli in:

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Inti Zlobec.