Genome editing harnesses programmable nucleases to cut and paste genetic information in a targeted manner in living cells and organisms. Here, I review the development of programmable nucleases, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), TAL (transcription-activator-like) effector nucleases (TALENs) and CRISPR (cluster of regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)–Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) RNA-guided endonucleases (RGENs). I specifically highlight the key advances that set the foundation for the rapid and widespread implementation of CRISPR–Cas9 genome editing approaches that has revolutionized the field.
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This work was supported by a grant from the Institute for Basic Science in South Korea (IBS-R021-D1). I would like to thank S.H. Ye for providing Figure 2.
J.-S.K. is a co-founder and shareholder of ToolGen, Inc., a biotechnology company focused on genome editing.
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Kim, J. Genome editing comes of age. Nat Protoc 11, 1573–1578 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2016.104
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