Table 1: Hormone Levels and Depressive Symptoms

From: Hormonal Cycle and Contraceptive Effects on Amygdala and Salience Resting-State Networks in Women with Previous Affective Side Effects on the Pill

 Naturally cycling placebo usersOral contraceptive usersBetween-group effects
 Follicular phaseLuteal phaseWithin-group effects (p)Follicular phaseDuring treatmentWithin-group effects (p)Follicular phase (p)Luteal phase/During treatment (p)
Estradiol (pmol/l)a167±99436±2770.002243±17550±180.0010.13< 0.001
Progesterone (nmol/l)2.0±0.918.2±21.20.0063.1±4.21.4±0.50.160.300.004
MADRS4.13±1.255.40±3.720.255.06±4.688.93±6.960.020.460.10
  1. Hormone levels and symptom scores are presented as mean±SD, and the significance levels for the within- and between-group effects are given in p-values.
  2. aMeasurement specificity restricted the lower limit of the estrogen levels to <40 pmol/l. Values indicated to be lower than this were therefore entered as 39 pmol/l.