Figure 4

From: Observation of Distressed Conspecific as a Model of Emotional Trauma Generates Silent Synapses in the Prefrontal-Amygdala Pathway and Enhances Fear Learning, but Ketamine Abolishes those Effects

Figure 4

OF generates silent synapses. (a and b) CV analyses of AMPAR and NMDAR currents. (a) Example traces (upper) at −75 and +40 mV from control (left) and OF mice (right) and corresponding amplitude plots (lower). Vertical black bars illustrate reading of each current. Black traces represent averages. (b) Summary diagram for CV of AMPAR and NMDAR currents (left) and for the ratio of CV-NMDAR/CV-AMPAR (right). (c and d) Failure rate test for silent synapses using minimal-like stimulation. (c) Example traces at −75 (lower) and +40 mV (upper) from control (left) and OF mice (right). Successes EPSC responses and failures are shown, respectively, in black and gray. (d) Failure rates of AMPAR and AMPAR-NMDAR mixed currents and estimated fraction of silent synapses. White/gray and black colors represent, respectively, control and OF. Data are presented as mean±SEM. Number of cells (upper) and animals (lower) are shown. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.