Figure 2

From: Candesartan, an Angiotensin II AT1-Receptor Blocker and PPAR-γ Agonist, Reduces Lesion Volume and Improves Motor and Memory Function After Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice

Figure 2

Candesartan treatment reduces the number of dying cells and activated microglial cells after CCI injury. Sections of brains from cortex (a, b) or hippocampus (d, e) taken from mice treated with candesartan (CD) or vehicle (VH) and killed at 3 dpi, showing dying cells, labeled by TUNEL (green) and the neuronal marker NeuN (red) (c, f). Graphs show the number of TUNEL-positive cells at 3 dpi was significantly reduced after injury in CD-treated mice (CCI-CD) compared with those treated with VH (CCI-VH) in the cortex and in the CA1, CA2/3, and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus (mean±SEM, n=4, *p<0.05). (g, h) At 3 dpi, increased numbers of Iba-1-positive microglia (red) were found in brain sections taken from VH-treated mice in comparison with CD-treated mice. In the VH-treated mice, the microglia had the ameboid and hypertrophy morphology characteristic of activated microglia (g′), in comparison with the more ramified morphology in CD-treated animals (h′). (i, j) Quantitative analysis of Iba-1-positive cells in injured cortex showed a reduction after CD treatment in the number of Iba-1-positive cells and in the fluorescence intensity of Iba-1 staining in the perilesional area (mean±SEM, n=4, *p<0.05). Scale bars represent 50 μm (a–e, g, and h) and 25 μm (g′, h′).