Figure 1

From: Candesartan, an Angiotensin II AT1-Receptor Blocker and PPAR-γ Agonist, Reduces Lesion Volume and Improves Motor and Memory Function After Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice

Figure 1

Neuroprotective effect of candesartan treatment on lesion volume following CCI injury in mice. (a) Experimental design. Osmotic pumps containing candesartan (CD, 1 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (VH) were implanted subcutaneously 5 h before craniotomy (sham) or CCI injury. Mice were pre-trained in the rotarod task (R), at 1 and 2 days before CCI and tested at 1 and 3 days post-injury (dpi). MWM testing began at 24 dpi, and continued daily until 28 dpi, when the mice were killed. (b) Representative sections of injured brains at 3 dpi stained with cresyl-violet (top). The dotted line indicates the lesion area composed of the cavity and edematous area. Candesartan treatment significantly reduced the mean lesion volume by 43% compared with vehicle-treated mice at 3 dpi (mean±SD n=7–8, ***p<0.001) and by 31% at 28 dpi (mean±SD, n=11–12, *p<0.05).