Aharonovich E, Hasin DS, Brooks AC, Liu X, Bisaga A, Nunes EV (2006). Cognitive deficits predict low treatment retention in cocaine dependent patients. Drug Alcohol Depend 81: 313–322.
Ahmed SH, Kenny PJ, Koob GF, Markou A (2002). Neurobiological evidence for hedonic allostasis associated with escalating cocaine use. Nat Neurosci 5: 625–626.
Ahmed SH, Koob GF (1998). Transition from moderate to excessive drug intake: change in hedonic set point. Science 282: 298–300. This study showed that rats given extended access to cocaine escalate intake and show behavior consistent with an increase in hedonic set point (lower reward) for the drug.
Ahmed SH, Koob GF (2004). Changes in response to a dopamine antagonist in rats with escalating cocaine intake. Psychopharmacology 172: 450–454.
Ahmed SH, Walker JR, Koob GF (2000). Persistent increase in the motivation to take heroin in rats with a history of drug escalation. Neuropsychopharmacology 22: 413–421.
Alheid GF, De Olmos JS, Beltramino CA (1995). Amygdala and extended amygdala. In: Paxinos G (ed). The Rat Nervous System. Academic Press: San Diego. pp 495–578.
Allen TJ, Moeller FG, Rhoades HM, Cherek DR (1998). Impulsivity and history of drug dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend 50: 137–145.
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edn. American Psychiatric Press: Washington, DC.
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edn, text revision American Psychiatric Press: Washington, DC.
Arroyo M, Markou A, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (1998). Acquisition, maintenance and reinstatement of intravenous cocaine self-administration under a second-order schedule of reinforcement in rats: effects of conditioned cues and continuous access to cocaine. Psychopharmacology 140: 331–344.
Baker DA, McFarland K, Lake RW, Shen H, Tang XC, Toda S et al (2003). Neuroadaptations in cystine-glutamate exchange underlie cocaine relapse. Nat Neurosci 6: 743–749.
Baker TB, Morse E, Sherman JE (1987). The motivation to use drugs: a psychobiological analysis of urges. In: River PC (ed). Alcohol and Addictive Behavior (series title: Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, vol 34). University of Nebraska Press: Lincoln, NE. pp 257–323.
Baldwin HA, Rassnick S, Rivier J, Koob GF, Britton KT (1991). CRF antagonist reverses the ‘anxiogenic’ response to ethanol withdrawal in the rat. Psychopharmacology 103: 227–232.
Barr AM, Phillips AG (1999). Withdrawal following repeated exposure to d-amphetamine decreases responding for a sucrose solution as measured by a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Psychopharmacology 141: 99–106.
Belin D, Everitt BJ (2008). Cocaine seeking habits depend upon dopamine-dependent serial connectivity linking the ventral with the dorsal striatum. Neuron 57: 432–441. This study showed that the interactions between the ventral and dorsal striatum are critical for the development of compulsive-like cocaine-seeking behavior.
Ben-Shahar O, Ahmed SH, Koob GF, Ettenberg A (2004). The transition from controlled to compulsive drug use is associated with a loss of sensitization. Brain Res 995: 46–54.
Bjork JM, Momenan R, Hommer DW (2009). Delay discounting correlates with proportional lateral frontal cortex volumes. Biol Psychiatry 65: 710–713.
Bolla KI, Eldreth DA, London ED, Kiehl KA, Mouratidis M, Contoreggi C et al (2003). Orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction in abstinent cocaine abusers performing a decision-making task. Neuroimage 19: 1085–1094.
Bonci A, Bernardi G, Grillner P, Mercuri NB (2003). The dopamine-containing neuron: maestro or simple musician in the orchestra of addiction? Trends Pharmacol Sci 24: 172–177.
Boudreau AC, Wolf ME (2005). Behavioral sensitization to cocaine is associated with increased AMPA receptor surface expression in the nucleus accumbens. J Neurosci 25: 9144–9151.
Briand LA, Flagel SB, Garcia-Fuster MJ, Watson SJ, Akil H, Sarter M et al (2008a). Persistent alterations in cognitive function and prefrontal dopamine D2 receptors following extended, but not limited, access to self-administered cocaine. Neuropsychopharmacology 33: 2969–2980.
Briand LA, Gross JP, Robinson TE (2008b). Impaired object recognition following prolonged withdrawal from extended-access cocaine self-administration. Neuroscience 155: 1–6.
Caine SB, Heinrichs SC, Coffin VL, Koob GF (1995). Effects of the dopamine D-1 antagonist SCH 23390 microinjected into the accumbens, amygdala or striatum on cocaine self-administration in the rat. Brain Res 692: 47–56.
Caine SB, Humby T, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2001). Behavioral effects of psychomotor stimulants in rats with dorsal or ventral subiculum lesions: locomotion, cocaine self-administration, and prepulse inhibition of startle. Behav Neurosci 115: 880–894.
Caine SB, Thomsen M, Gabriel KI, Berkowitz JS, Gold LH, Koob GF et al (2007). Lack of self-administration of cocaine in dopamine D1 receptor knock-out mice. J Neurosci 27: 13140–13150.
Calu DJ, Stalnaker TA, Franz TM, Singh T, Shaham Y, Schoenbaum G (2007). Withdrawal from cocaine self-administration produces long-lasting deficits in orbitofrontal-dependent reversal learning in rats. Learn Mem 14: 325–328.
Canales JJ (2007). Adult neurogenesis and the memories of drug addiction. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 257: 261–270.
Chait LD (1994). Reinforcing and subjective effects of methylphenidate in humans. Behav Pharmacol 5: 281–288.
Chao SZ, Ariano MA, Peterson DA, Wolf ME (2002). D1 dopamine receptor stimulation increases GluR1 surface expression in nucleus accumbens neurons. J Neurochem 83: 704–712.
Chen BT, Bowers MS, Martin M, Hopf FW, Guillory AM, Carelli RM et al (2008). Cocaine but not natural reward self-administration nor passive cocaine infusion produces persistent LTP in the VTA. Neuron 59: 288–297.
Chen R, Tilley MR, Wei H, Zhou F, Zhou FM, Ching S et al (2006a). Abolished cocaine reward in mice with a cocaine-insensitive dopamine transporter. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103: 9333–9338.
Chen SA, O’Dell L, Hoefer M, Greenwell TN, Zorrilla EP, Koob GF (2006b). Unlimited access to heroin self-administration: independent motivational markers of opiate dependence. Neuropsychopharmacology 31: 2692–2707 (corrigendum: 31: 2802).
Childress AR, McLellan AT, Ehrman R, O’Brien CP (1988). Classically conditioned responses in opioid and cocaine dependence: a role in relapse?. In: Ray BA (ed). Learning Factors in Substance Abuse (series title: NIDA Research Monograph, vol 84). National Institute on Drug Abuse: Rockville, MD. pp 25–43.
Childress AR, Mozley PD, McElgin W, Fitzgerald J, Reivich M, O’Brien CP (1999). Limbic activation during cue-induced cocaine craving. Am J Psychiatry 156: 11–18.
Clark L, Bechara A, Damasio H, Aitken MR, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW (2008). Differential effects of insular and ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions on risky decision-making. Brain 131: 1311–1322.
Collins RJ, Weeks JR, Cooper MM, Good PI, Russell RR (1984). Prediction of abuse liability of drugs using IV self-administration by rats. Psychopharmacology 82: 6–13.
Conrad KL, Tseng KY, Uejima JL, Reimers JM, Heng LJ, Shaham Y et al (2008). Formation of accumbens GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors mediates incubation of cocaine craving. Nature 454: 118–121.
Creese I, Iversen SD (1974). The role of forebrain dopamine systems in amphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior in the rat. Psychopharmacology 39: 345–357.
Crow TJ (1973). Catecholamine-containing neurones and electrical self-stimulation: 2. A theoretical interpretation and some psychiatric implications. Psychol Med 3: 66–73.
de Witte P, Littleton J, Parot P, Koob G (2005). Neuroprotective and abstinence-promoting effects of acamprosate: elucidating the mechanism of action. CNS Drugs 19: 517–537.
Delfs JM, Zhu Y, Druhan JP, Aston-Jones G (2000). Noradrenaline in the ventral forebrain is critical for opiate withdrawal-induced aversion. Nature 403: 430–434.
Deroche-Gamonet V, Belin D, Piazza PV (2004). Evidence for addiction-like behavior in the rat. Science 305: 1014–1017.
Dewey SL, Morgan AE, Ashby Jr CR, Horan B, Kushner SA, Logan J et al (1998). A novel strategy for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Synapse 30: 119–129.
Di Chiara G, Imperato A (1988). Drugs abused by humans preferentially increase synaptic dopamine concentrations in the mesolimbic system of freely moving rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 5274–5278.
Drevets WC, Gautier C, Price JC, Kupfer DJ, Kinahan PE, Grace AA et al (2001). Amphetamine-induced dopamine release in human ventral striatum correlates with euphoria. Biol Psychiatry 49: 81–96.
Duncan E, Boshoven W, Harenski K, Fiallos A, Tracy H, Jovanovic T et al (2007). An fMRI study of the interaction of stress and cocaine cues on cocaine craving in cocaine-dependent men. Am J Addict 16: 174–182.
Dyr W, Kostowski W (1995). Evidence that the amygdala is involved in the inhibitory effects of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists on alcohol drinking in rats. Alcohol 12: 387–391.
Edwards S, Graham DL, Bachtell RK, Self DW (2007). Region-specific tolerance to cocaine-regulated cAMP-dependent protein phosphorylation following chronic self-administration. Eur J Neurosci 25: 2201–2213.
Everitt BJ, Belin D, Economidou D, Pelloux Y, Dalley JW, Robbins TW (2008). Review. Neural mechanisms underlying the vulnerability to develop compulsive drug-seeking habits and addiction. Phil Trans Royal Soc London B Biol Sci 363: 3125–3135.
Everitt BJ, Robbins TW (2005). Neural systems of reinforcement for drug addiction: from actions to habits to compulsion. Nat Neurosci 8: 1481–1489 (erratum: 9(7): 979).
Everitt BJ, Wolf ME (2002). Psychomotor stimulant addiction: a neural systems perspective. J Neurosci 22: 3312–3320 (erratum: 22(16): 1a).
Ferrario CR, Gorny G, Crombag HS, Li Y, Kolb B, Robinson TE (2005). Neural and behavioral plasticity associated with the transition from controlled to escalated cocaine use. Biol Psychiatry 58: 751–759.
Fowler JS, Volkow ND, Logan J, Alexoff D, Telang F, Wang GJ et al (2008). Fast uptake and long-lasting binding of methamphetamine in the human brain: comparison with cocaine. Neuroimage 43: 756–763.
Franklin TR, Wang Z, Wang J, Sciortino N, Harper D, Li Y et al (2007). Limbic activation to cigarette smoking cues independent of nicotine withdrawal: a perfusion fMRI study. Neuropsychopharmacology 32: 2301–2309.
Freeman AS, Meltzer LT, Bunney BS (1985). Firing properties of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons in freely moving rats. Life Sci 36: 1983–1994.
Funk CK, O’Dell LE, Crawford EF, Koob GF (2006). Corticotropin-releasing factor within the central nucleus of the amygdala mediates enhanced ethanol self-administration in withdrawn, ethanol-dependent rats. J Neurosci 26: 11324–11332. This study showed that blockade of CRF receptors in the area of the central nucleus of the amygdala blocks the increased alcohol intake associated with dependence but not alcohol intake in nondependent animals.
Garavan H, Kaufman JN, Hester R (2008). Acute effects of cocaine on the neurobiology of cognitive control. Phil Trans Royal Soc London B Biol Sci 363: 3267–3276.
George O, Ghozland S, Azar MR, Cottone P, Zorrilla EP, Parsons LH et al (2007). CRF-CRF1 system activation mediates withdrawal-induced increases in nicotine self-administration in nicotine-dependent rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 17198–17203.
George O, Mandyam CD, Wee S, Koob GF (2008). Extended access to cocaine self-administration produces long-lasting prefrontal cortex-dependent working memory impairments. Neuropsychopharmacology 33: 2474–2482.
Gilpin NW, Koob GF (2008). Overview: neurobiology of alcohol dependence with a focus on motivational mechanisms. Alcohol Res Health 31: 185–195.
Gilpin NW, Misra K, Koob GF (2008). Neuropeptide Y in the central nucleus of the amygdala suppresses dependence-induced increases in alcohol drinking. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90: 475–480.
Goldstein RZ, Volkow ND (2002). Drug addiction and its underlying neurobiological basis: neuroimaging evidence for the involvement of the frontal cortex. Am J Psychiatry 159: 1642–1652.
Gonzalez D, Riba J, Bouso JC, Gomez-Jarabo G, Barbanoj MJ (2006). Pattern of use and subjective effects of Salvia divinorum among recreational users. Drug Alcohol Depend 85: 157–162.
Grace AA (2000). The tonic/phasic model of dopamine system regulation and its implications for understanding alcohol and psychostimulant craving. Addiction 95(Suppl 2): S119–S128.
Grant BF, Dawson DA (1998). Age of onset of drug use and its association with DSM-IV drug abuse and dependence: results from the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. J Subst Abuse 10: 163–173.
Grant BF, Dawson DA, Stinson FS, Chou SP, Dufour MC, Pickering RP (2004). The 12-month prevalence and trends in DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: United States, 1991–1992 and 2001–2002. Drug Alcohol Depend 74: 223–234.
Grant S, London ED, Newlin DB, Villemagne VL, Liu X, Contoreggi C et al (1996). Activation of memory circuits during cue-elicited cocaine craving. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 12040–12045.
Greenwell TN, Funk CK, Cottone P, Richardson HN, Chen SA, Rice K et al (2009). Corticotropin-releasing factor-1 receptor antagonists decrease heroin self-administration in long-, but not short-access rats. Addict Biol 14: 130–143.
Hand TH, Koob GF, Stinus L, Le Moal M (1988). Aversive properties of opiate receptor blockade: evidence for exclusively central mediation in naive and morphine-dependent rats. Brain Res 474: 364–368.
Hebb DO (1972). Textbook of Psychology 3rd edn. WB Saunders: Philadelphia.
Heilig M, Koob GF (2007). A key role for corticotropin-releasing factor in alcohol dependence. Trends Neurosci 30: 399–406.
Heilig M, Koob GF, Ekman R, Britton KT (1994). Corticotropin-releasing factor and neuropeptide Y: role in emotional integration. Trends Neurosci 17: 80–85.
Heimer L, Alheid G (1991). Piecing together the puzzle of basal forebrain anatomy. In: Napier TC, Kalivas PW, Hanin I (eds). The Basal Forebrain: Anatomy to Function (series title: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol 295). Plenum Press: New York. pp 1–42.
Heinrichs SC, Menzaghi F, Schulteis G, Koob GF, Stinus L (1995). Suppression of corticotropin-releasing factor in the amygdala attenuates aversive consequences of morphine withdrawal. Behav Pharmacol 6: 74–80.
Heinz A, Siessmeier T, Wrase J, Hermann D, Klein S, Grusser SM et al (2004). Correlation between dopamine D(2) receptors in the ventral striatum and central processing of alcohol cues and craving. Am J Psychiatry 161: 1783–1789 (erratum: 161: 2344).
Hernandez G, Hamdani S, Rajabi H, Conover K, Stewart J, Arvanitogiannis A et al (2006). Prolonged rewarding stimulation of the rat medial forebrain bundle: neurochemical and behavioral consequences. Behav Neurosci 120: 888–904.
Heyser CJ, Roberts AJ, Schulteis G, Koob GF (1999). Central administration of an opiate antagonist decreases oral ethanol self-administration in rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 23: 1468–1476.
Hill RT (1970). Facilitation of conditioned reinforcement as a mechanism of psychomotor stimulation. In: Cost E, Garattini S (eds). Amphetamines and Related Compounds. Raven Press: New York. pp 781–795.
Hnasko TS, Sotak BN, Palmiter RD (2005). Morphine reward in dopamine-deficient mice. Nature 438: 854–857.
Holland PC, Gallagher M (2004). Amygdala–frontal interactions and reward expectancy. Curr Opin Neurobiol 14: 148–155.
Hubner CB, Koob GF (1990). The ventral pallidum plays a role in mediating cocaine and heroin self-administration in the rat. Brain Res 508: 20–29.
Hyman SE, Malenka RC, Nestler EJ (2006). Neural mechanisms of addiction: the role of reward-related learning and memory. Annu Rev Neurosci 29: 565–598.
Hyytia P, Koob GF (1995). GABA-A receptor antagonism in the extended amygdala decreases ethanol self-administration in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 283: 151–159.
Ito R, Dalley JW, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2002). Dopamine release in the dorsal striatum during cocaine-seeking behavior under the control of a drug-associated cue. J Neurosci 22: 6247–6253.
Jentsch JD, Olausson P, de la Garza II R, Taylor JR (2002). Impairments of reversal learning and response perseveration after repeated, intermittent cocaine administrations to monkeys. Neuropsychopharmacology 26: 183–190.
Jones S, Bonci A (2005). Synaptic plasticity and drug addiction. Curr Opin Pharmacol 5: 20–25.
June HL, Foster KL, McKay PF, Seyoum R, Woods JE, Harvey SC et al (2003). The reinforcing properties of alcohol are mediated by GABA(A1) receptors in the ventral pallidum. Neuropsychopharmacology 28: 2124–2137.
Justinova Z, Tanda G, Redhi GH, Goldberg SR (2003). Self-administration of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) by drug naive squirrel monkeys. Psychopharmacology 169: 135–140.
Kalivas PW (2004). Glutamate systems in cocaine addiction. Curr Opin Pharmacol 4: 23–29.
Kalivas PW, O’Brien C (2008). Drug addiction as a pathology of staged neuroplasticity. Neuropsychopharmacology 33: 166–180.
Kalivas PW, Volkow ND (2005). The neural basis of addiction: a pathology of motivation and choice. Am J Psychiatry 162: 1403–1413.
Kauer JA, Malenka RC (2007). Synaptic plasticity and addiction. Nat Rev Neurosci 8: 844–858.
Kelly PH, Iversen SD (1976). Selective 6-OHDA-induced destruction of mesolimbic dopamine neurons: abolition of psychostimulant-induced locomotor activity in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 40: 45–56.
Kenny PJ, Chen SA, Kitamura O, Markou A, Koob GF (2006). Conditioned withdrawal drives heroin consumption and decreases reward sensitivity. J Neurosci 26: 5894–5900.
Kilts CD, Schweitzer JB, Quinn CK, Gross RE, Faber TL, Muhammad F et al (2001). Neural activity related to drug craving in cocaine addiction. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58: 334–341.
Kitamura O, Wee S, Specio SE, Koob GF, Pulvirenti L (2006). Escalation of methamphetamine self-administration in rats: a dose–effect function. Psychopharmacology 186: 48–53.
Koob GF (1992). Drugs of abuse: anatomy, pharmacology, and function of reward pathways. Trends Pharmacol Sci 13: 177–184.
Koob GF (2004). Allostatic view of motivation: implications for psychopathology. In: Bevins RA, Bardo MT (eds). Motivational Factors in the Etiology of Drug Abuse (series title: Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, vol 50). University of Nebraska Press: Lincoln, NE. pp 1–18.
Koob GF (2005). The neurocircuitry of addiction: implications for treatment. Clin Neurosci Res 5: 89–101.
Koob GF (2008). A role for brain stress systems in addiction. Neuron 59: 11–34.
Koob GF (2009a). Neurobiological substrates for the dark side of compulsivity in addiction. Neuropharmacology 56(Suppl 1): 18–31.
Koob GF (2009b). Brain stress systems in the amygdala and addiction. Brain Res (in press).
Koob GF, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW (2008a). Reward, motivation, and addiction. In: Squire LG, Berg D, Bloom FE, Du Lac S, Ghosh A, Spitzer N (eds). Fundamental Neuroscience 3rd edn. Academic Press: Amsterdam. pp 987–1016.
Koob GF, Kandel D, Volkow ND (2008b). Pathophysiology of addiction. In: Tasman A, Kay J, Lieberman JA, First MB, Maj M (eds). Psychiatry 3rd edn, vol 1 Wiley: Chichester. pp 354–378.
Koob GF, Kreek MJ (2007). Stress, dysregulation of drug reward pathways, and the transition to drug dependence. Am J Psychiatry 164: 1149–1159.
Koob GF, Le Moal M (1997). Drug abuse: hedonic homeostatic dysregulation. Science 278: 52–58. This theoretical review argued that drug addiction involves decreased hedonic homeostatic dysregulation (dysregulation of reward function) driven by both decreased activity in reward pathways and recruitment of brain stress systems.
Koob GF, Le Moal M (2001). Drug addiction, dysregulation of reward, and allostasis. Neuropsychopharmacology 24: 97–129.
Koob GF, Le Moal M (2005). Plasticity of reward neurocircuitry and the ‘dark side’ of drug addiction. Nat Neurosci 8: 1442–1444.
Koob GF, Le Moal M (2006). Neurobiology of Addiction. Academic Press: London.
Koob GF, Le Moal M (2008). Addiction and the brain antireward system. Annu Rev Psychol 59: 29–53.
Koob GF, Lloyd GK, Mason BJ (2009). Development of pharmacotherapies for drug addiction: a Rosetta Stone approach. Nat Rev Drug Discov 8: 500–515.
Koob GF, Nestler EJ (1997). The neurobiology of drug addiction. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 9: 482–497.
Kornetsky C, Bain G (1990). Brain-stimulation reward: a model for drug induced euphoria. In: Adler MW, Cowan A (eds). Testing and Evaluation of Drugs of Abuse (series title: Modern Methods in Pharmacology, vol 6). Wiley-Liss: New York. pp 211–231.
Kornetsky C, Esposito RU (1979). Euphorigenic drugs: effects on the reward pathways of the brain. Fed Proc 38: 2473–2476.
Kourrich S, Rothwell PE, Klug JR, Thomas MJ (2007). Cocaine experience controls bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. J Neurosci 27: 7921–7928.
Kufahl P, Li Z, Risinger R, Rainey C, Piacentine L, Wu G et al (2008). Expectation modulates human brain responses to acute cocaine: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol Psychiatry 63: 222–230.
Langleben DD, Ruparel K, Elman I, Busch-Winokur S, Pratiwadi R, Loughead J et al (2008). Acute effect of methadone maintenance dose on brain FMRI response to heroin-related cues. Am J Psychiatry 165: 390–394.
LaRowe SD, Myrick H, Hedden S, Mardikian P, Saladin M, McRae A et al (2007). Is cocaine desire reduced by N-acetylcysteine? Am J Psychiatry 164: 1115–1117.
Laviolette SR, Alexson TO, van der Kooy D (2002). Lesions of the tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus block the rewarding effects and reveal the aversive effects of nicotine in the ventral tegmental area. J Neurosci 22: 8653–8660.
Le Doux JE (2000). Emotion circuits in the brain. Annu Rev Neurosci 23: 155–184.
Le Moal M, Simon H (1991). Mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic network: functional and regulatory roles. Physiol Rev 71: 155–234.
Lee JL (2008). Memory reconsolidation mediates the strengthening of memories by additional learning. Nat Neurosci 11: 1264–1266.
Lee JL, Di Ciano P, Thomas KL, Everitt BJ (2005). Disrupting reconsolidation of drug memories reduces cocaine-seeking behavior. Neuron 47: 795–801.
Li YQ, Li FQ, Wang XY, Wu P, Zhao M, Xu CM et al (2008). Central amygdala extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway is critical to incubation of opiate craving. J Neurosci 28: 13248–13257.
Logan GD, Schachar RJ, Tannock R (1997). Impulsivity and inhibitory control. Psychol Sci 8: 60–64.
Lu L, Koya E, Zhai H, Hope BT, Shaham Y (2006). Role of ERK in cocaine addiction. Trends Neurosci 29: 695–703.
Madayag A, Lobner D, Kau KS, Mantsch JR, Abdulhameed O, Hearing M et al (2007). Repeated N-acetylcysteine administration alters plasticity-dependent effects of cocaine. J Neurosci 27: 13968–13976.
Maisonneuve IM, Ho A, Kreek MJ (1995). Chronic administration of a cocaine ‘binge’ alters basal extracellular levels in male rats: an in vivo microdialysis study. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 272: 652–657.
Mameli-Engvall M, Evrard A, Pons S, Maskos U, Svensson TH, Changeux JP et al (2006). Hierarchical control of dopamine neuron-firing patterns by nicotinic receptors. Neuron 50: 911–921.
Markou A, Kosten TR, Koob GF (1998). Neurobiological similarities in depression and drug dependence: a self-medication hypothesis. Neuropsychopharmacology 18: 135–174.
Martinez D, Broft A, Foltin RW, Slifstein M, Hwang DR, Huang Y et al (2004). Cocaine dependence and d2 receptor availability in the functional subdivisions of the striatum: relationship with cocaine-seeking behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology 29: 1190–1202 (erratum: 29: 1763).
Martinez D, Gil R, Slifstein M, Hwang DR, Huang Y, Perez A et al (2005). Alcohol dependence is associated with blunted dopamine transmission in the ventral striatum. Biol Psychiatry 58: 779–786.
Martinez D, Narendran R, Foltin RW, Slifstein M, Hwang DR, Broft A et al (2007). Amphetamine-induced dopamine release: markedly blunted in cocaine dependence and predictive of the choice to self-administer cocaine. Am J Psychiatry 164: 622–629.
McBride WJ, Murphy JM, Ikemoto S (1999). Localization of brain reinforcement mechanisms: intracranial self-administration and intracranial place-conditioning studies. Behav Brain Res 101: 129–152.
McClernon FJ, Kozink RV, Lutz AM, Rose JE (2009). 24-h smoking abstinence potentiates fMRI-BOLD activation to smoking cues in cerebral cortex and dorsal striatum. Psychopharmacology 204: 25–35.
McClung CA, Ulery PG, Perrotti LI, Zachariou V, Berton O, Nestler EJ (2004). DeltaFosB: a molecular switch for long-term adaptation in the brain. Mol Brain Res 132: 146–154.
McFarland K, Kalivas PW (2001). The circuitry mediating cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. J Neurosci 21: 8655–8663. This study established a key role of the dorsal frontal cortex-nucleus accumbens-ventral pallidal circuit in cocaine-induced reinstatement.
McFarland K, Lapish CC, Kalivas PW (2003). Prefrontal glutamate release into the core of the nucleus accumbens mediates cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. J Neurosci 23: 3531–3537.
McGregor A, Roberts DCS (1993). Dopaminergic antagonism within the nucleus accumbens or the amygdala produces differential effects on intravenous cocaine self-administration under fixed and progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement. Brain Res 624: 245–252.
Melendez RI, Rodd ZA, McBride WJ, Murphy JM (2004). Involvement of the mesopallidal dopamine system in ethanol reinforcement. Alcohol 32: 137–144.
Melis M, Spiga S, Diana M (2005). The dopamine hypothesis of drug addiction: hypodopaminergic state. Int Rev Neurobiol 63: 101–154.
Milton AL, Lee JL, Everitt BJ (2008). Reconsolidation of appetitive memories for both natural and drug reinforcement is dependent on β-adrenergic receptors. Learn Mem 15: 88–92.
Miranda MI, LaLumiere RT, Buen TV, Bermudez-Rattoni F, McGaugh JL (2003). Blockade of noradrenergic receptors in the basolateral amygdala impairs taste memory. Eur J Neurosci 18: 2605–2610.
Moeller FG, Barratt ES, Dougherty DM, Schmitz JM, Swann AC (2001). Psychiatric aspects of impulsivity. Am J Psychiatry 158: 1783–1793.
Moller C, Wiklund L, Sommer W, Thorsell A, Heilig M (1997). Decreased experimental anxiety and voluntary ethanol consumption in rats following central but not basolateral amygdala lesions. Brain Res 760: 94–101.
Moussawi K, Pacchioni A, Moran M, Olive MF, Gass JT, Lavin A et al (2009). N-acetylcysteine reverses cocaine-induced metaplasticity. Nat Neurosci 12: 182–189.
Murray EA (2007). The amygdala, reward and emotion. Trends Cogn Sci 11: 489–497.
Naqvi NH, Bechara A (2009). The hidden island of addiction: the insula. Trends Neurosci 32: 56–67.
Naqvi NH, Rudrauf D, Damasio H, Bechara A (2007). Damage to the insula disrupts addiction to cigarette smoking. Science 315: 531–534. This study showed that damage to the insula in human smokers was associated with cessation of smoking, establishing a link between the insula and nicotine addiction.
Nauta JH, Haymaker W (1969). Hypothalamic nuclei and fiber connections. In: Haymaker W, Anderson E, Nauta WJH (eds). The Hypothalamus. Charles C Thomas: Springfield, IL. pp 136–209.
Nelson CL, Milovanovic M, Wetter JB, Ford KA, Wolf ME (2009). Behavioral sensitization to amphetamine is not accompanied by changes in glutamate receptor surface expression in the rat nucleus accumbens. J Neurochem 109: 35–51.
Nestler EJ (2005). Is there a common molecular pathway for addiction? Nat Neurosci 8: 1445–1449. This review summarizes a body of work characterizing the role of molecular changes mediating the transition from drug taking to addiction with a special emphasis on the accumulation of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens following chronic drug exposure.
Neugebauer V, Li W, Bird GC, Han JS (2004). The amygdala and persistent pain. Neuroscientist 10: 221–234.
O’Dell LE, Koob GF (2007). Nicotine deprivation effect in rats with intermittent 23-h access to intravenous nicotine self-administration. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 86: 346–353.
Olds J, Milner P (1954). Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain. J Comp Physiol Psychol 47: 419–427.
Orsini C, Koob GF, Pulvirenti L (2001). Dopamine partial agonist reverses amphetamine withdrawal in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 25: 789–792.
Pierce RC, Bell K, Duffy P, Kalivas PW (1996). Repeated cocaine augments excitatory amino acid transmission in the nucleus accumbens only in rats having developed behavioral sensitization. J Neurosci 16: 1550–1560.
Pulvirenti L, Koob GF (1993). Lisuride reduces psychomotor retardation during withdrawal from chronic intravenous amphetamine self-administration in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 8: 213–218.
Rachlin H, Green L (1972). Commitment, choice and self-control. J Exp Anal Behav 17: 15–22.
Robbins TW (1976). Relationship between reward-enhancing and stereotypical effects of psychomotor stimulant drugs. Nature 264: 57–59.
Roberts AJ, Heyser CJ, Cole M, Griffin P, Koob GF (2000). Excessive ethanol drinking following a history of dependence: animal model of allostasis. Neuropsychopharmacology 22: 581–594.
Roberts DCS (1992). Neural substrates mediating cocaine reinforcement: the role of monoamine systems. In: Lakoski JM, Galloway MP, White FJ (eds). Cocaine: Pharmacology, Physiology and Clinical Strategies. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL. pp 73–90.
Robinson TE, Berridge KC (1993). The neural basis of drug craving: an incentive-sensitization theory of addiction. Brain Res Rev 18: 247–291.
Robledo P, Koob GF (1993). Two discrete nucleus accumbens projection areas differentially mediate cocaine self-administration in the rat. Behav Brain Res 55: 159–166.
Rocha BA, Fumagalli F, Gainetdinov RR, Jones SR, Ator R, Giros B et al (1998). Cocaine self-administration in dopamine-transporter knockout mice. Nat Neurosci 1: 132–137.
Rossetti ZL, Hmaidan Y, Gessa GL (1992). Marked inhibition of mesolimbic dopamine release: a common feature of ethanol, morphine, cocaine and amphetamine abstinence in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 221: 227–234.
Russell MAH (1976). What is dependence?. In: Edwards G (ed). Drugs and Drug Dependence. Lexington Books: Lexington, MA. pp 182–187.
Saal D, Dong Y, Bonci A, Malenka RC (2003). Drugs of abuse and stress trigger a common synaptic adaptation in dopamine neurons. Neuron 37: 577–582 (erratum: 38: 359).
Salamone JD, Correa M, Farrar A, Mingote SM (2007). Effort-related functions of nucleus accumbens dopamine and associated forebrain circuits. Psychopharmacology 191: 461–482.
Sanchis-Segura C, Spanagel R (2006). Behavioural assessment of drug reinforcement and addictive features in rodents: an overview. Addict Biol 11: 2–38.
Sarnyai Z, Biro E, Gardi J, Vecsernyes M, Julesz J, Telegdy G (1995). Brain corticotropin-releasing factor mediates ‘anxiety-like’ behavior induced by cocaine withdrawal in rats. Brain Res 675: 89–97.
Schoenbaum G, Saddoris MP, Ramus SJ, Shaham Y, Setlow B (2004). Cocaine-experienced rats exhibit learning deficits in a task sensitive to orbitofrontal cortex lesions. Eur J Neurosci 19: 1997–2002.
Schulteis G, Ahmed SH, Morse AC, Koob GF, Everitt BJ (2000). Conditioning and opiate withdrawal: the amygdala links neutral stimuli with the agony of overcoming drug addiction. Nature 405: 1013–1014.
Schulteis G, Stinus L, Risbrough VB, Koob GF (1998). Clonidine blocks acquisition but not expression of conditioned opiate withdrawal in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 19: 406–416.
Schultz W (2007). Multiple dopamine functions at different time courses. Annu Rev Neurosci 30: 259–288.
Shaham Y, Shalev U, Lu L, de Wit H, Stewart J (2003). The reinstatement model of drug relapse: history, methodology and major findings. Psychopharmacology 168: 3–20.
Shalev U, Grimm JW, Shaham Y (2002). Neurobiology of relapse to heroin and cocaine seeking: a review. Pharmacol Rev 54: 1–42. This review summarizes the neurocircuitry associated with drug-, cue-, and stress-induced relapse determined from extensive work with animal models.
Sharma A, Brody AL (2009). In vivo brain imaging of human exposure to nicotine and tobacco. Handb Exp Pharmacol 192: 145–171.
Shaw-Lutchman TZ, Barrot M, Wallace T, Gilden L, Zachariou V, Impey S et al (2002). Regional and cellular mapping of cAMP response element-mediated transcription during naltrexone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. J Neurosci 22: 3663–3672.
Solomon RL, Corbit JD (1974). An opponent-process theory of motivation: 1. Temporal dynamics of affect. Psychol Rev 81: 119–145.
Stein L (1962). Effects and interactions of imipramine, chlorpromazine, reserpine, and amphetamine on self-stimulation: possible neurophysiological basis of depression. Recent Adv Biol Psychiatry 4: 288–309.
Stinus L, Cador M, Zorrilla EP, Koob GF (2005). Buprenorphine and a CRF1 antagonist block the acquisition of opiate withdrawal-induced conditioned place aversion in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 30: 90–98.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2008). Results from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings (Office of Applied Statistics, NSDUH Series H-34, DHHS Publication No. SMA 08-4343). Rockville, MD.
Sutton MA, Schmidt EF, Choi KH, Schad CA, Whisler K, Simmons D et al (2003). Extinction-induced upregulation in AMPA receptors reduces cocaine-seeking behaviour. Nature 421: 70–75.
Tanda G, Pontieri FE, Di Chiara G (1997). Cannabinoid and heroin activation of mesolimbic dopamine transmission by a common μ1 opioid receptor mechanism. Science 276: 2048–2050.
Thorsell A, Rapunte-Canonigo V, O’Dell L, Chen SA, King A, Lekic D et al (2007). Viral vector-induced amygdala NPY overexpression reverses increased alcohol intake caused by repeated deprivations in Wistar rats. Brain 130: 1330–1337.
Thorsell A, Slawecki CJ, Ehlers CL (2005a). Effects of neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing factor on ethanol intake in Wistar rats: interaction with chronic ethanol exposure. Behav Brain Res 161: 133–140.
Thorsell A, Slawecki CJ, Ehlers CL (2005b). Effects of neuropeptide Y on appetitive and consummatory behaviors associated with alcohol drinking in Wistar rats with a history of ethanol exposure. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 29: 584–590.
Tiffany ST, Carter BL, Singleton EG (2000). Challenges in the manipulation, assessment and interpretation of craving relevant variables. Addiction 95(Suppl 2): s177–s187.
Todtenkopf MS, Parsegian A, Naydenov A, Neve RL, Konradi C, Carlezon Jr WA (2006). Brain reward regulated by AMPA receptor subunits in nucleus accumbens shell. J Neurosci 26: 11665–11669.
Tomasi D, Goldstein RZ, Telang F, Maloney T, Alia-Klein N, Caparelli EC et al (2007a). Widespread disruption in brain activation patterns to a working memory task during cocaine abstinence. Brain Res 1171: 83–92.
Tomasi D, Goldstein RZ, Telang F, Maloney T, Alia-Klein N, Caparelli EC et al (2007b). Thalamo-cortical dysfunction in cocaine abusers: implications in attention and perception. Psychiatry Res 155: 189–201.
Tornatzky W, Miczek KA (2000). Cocaine self-administration ‘binges’: transition from behavioral and autonomic regulation toward homeostatic dysregulation in rats. Psychopharmacology 148: 289–298.
Tucci S, Cheeta S, Seth P, File SE (2003). Corticotropin releasing factor antagonist, α-helical CRF9−41, reverses nicotine-induced conditioned, but not unconditioned, anxiety. Psychopharmacology 167: 251–256.
Tzschentke TM (1998). Measuring reward with the conditioned place preference paradigm: a comprehensive review of drug effects, recent progress and new issues. Prog Neurobiol 56: 613–672.
Ungless MA, Whistler JL, Malenka RC, Bonci A (2001). Single cocaine exposure in vivo induces long-term potentiation in dopamine neurons. Nature 411: 583–587.
Valdez GR, Roberts AJ, Chan K, Davis H, Brennan M, Zorrilla EP et al (2002). Increased ethanol self-administration and anxiety-like behavior during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence: regulation by corticotropin-releasing factor. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 26: 1494–1501.
Vanderschuren LJ, Everitt BJ (2004). Drug seeking becomes compulsive after prolonged cocaine self-administration. Science 305: 1017–1019.
Vezina P (2004). Sensitization of midbrain dopamine neuron reactivity and the self-administration of psychomotor stimulant drugs. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 27: 827–839.
Volkow ND, Chang L, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Ding YS, Sedler M et al (2001a). Low level of brain dopamine D2 receptors in methamphetamine abusers: association with metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex. Am J Psychiatry 158: 2015–2021. This study shows an association between the decreases in dopamine function in addiction and decreased function of the orbitofrontal cortex, establishing a key link between compromised striatal activity and orbitofrontal dysfunction in addiction.
Volkow ND, Fowler JS, Wang GJ, Ding YS, Gatley SJ (2002). Role of dopamine in the therapeutic and reinforcing effects of methylphenidate in humans: results from imaging studies. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 12: 557–566.
Volkow ND, Fowler JS, Wang GJ, Hitzemann R, Logan J, Schlyer DJ et al (1993). Decreased dopamine D2 receptor availability is associated with reduced frontal metabolism in cocaine abusers. Synapse 14: 169–177.
Volkow ND, Fowler JS, Wang GJ (2004a). The addicted human brain viewed in the light of imaging studies: brain circuits and treatment strategies. Neuropharmacology 47(Suppl 1): 3–13.
Volkow ND, Fowler JS, Wang GJ, Swanson JM (2004b). Dopamine in drug abuse and addiction: results from imaging studies and treatment implications. Mol Psychiatry 9: 557–569.
Volkow ND, Gillespie H, Mullani N, Tancredi L, Grant C, Valentine A et al (1996a). Brain glucose metabolism in chronic marijuana users at baseline and during marijuana intoxication. Psychiatry Res 67: 29–38.
Volkow ND, Swanson JM (2003). Variables that affect the clinical use and abuse of methylphenidate in the treatment of ADHD. Am J Psychiatry 160: 1909–1918.
Volkow ND, Wang G, Fowler JS, Logan J, Gerasimov M, Maynard L et al (2001b). Therapeutic doses of oral methylphenidate significantly increase extracellular dopamine in the human brain. J Neurosci 21: RC121.
Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fischman MW, Foltin RW, Fowler JS, Abumrad NN et al (1997a). Relationship between subjective effects of cocaine and dopamine transporter occupancy. Nature 386: 827–830.
Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Franceschi D, Thanos PK, Wong C et al (2000). Cocaine abusers show a blunted response to alcohol intoxication in limbic brain regions. Life Sci 66: PL161–PL167.
Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Gatley SJ, Ding YS, Logan J et al (1996b). Relationship between psychostimulant-induced ‘high’ and dopamine transporter occupancy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 10388–10392.
Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Hitzemann R, Angrist B, Gatley SJ et al (1999). Association of methylphenidate-induced craving with changes in right striato-orbitofrontal metabolism in cocaine abusers: implications in addiction. Am J Psychiatry 156: 19–26.
Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Hitzemann R, Gatley SJ, Dewey SS et al (1998). Enhanced sensitivity to benzodiazepines in active cocaine-abusing subjects: a PET study. Am J Psychiatry 155: 200–206.
Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Logan J, Gatley SJ, Hitzemann R et al (1997b). Decreased striatal dopaminergic responsiveness in detoxified cocaine-dependent subjects. Nature 386: 830–833. This study using PET showed decreased release of dopamine in the striatum and a decreased ‘high’ produced by methylphenidate, suggesting a compromised striatal dopamine system in addiction.
Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Ma Y, Fowler JS, Wong C, Ding YS et al (2005). Activation of orbital and medial prefrontal cortex by methylphenidate in cocaine-addicted subjects but not in controls: relevance to addiction. J Neurosci 25: 3932–3939.
Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Ma Y, Fowler JS, Zhu W, Maynard L et al (2003). Expectation enhances the regional brain metabolic and the reinforcing effects of stimulants in cocaine abusers. J Neurosci 23: 11461–11468.
Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Telang F, Fowler JS, Logan J, Childress AR et al (2006). Cocaine cues and dopamine in dorsal striatum: mechanism of craving in cocaine addiction. J Neurosci 26: 6583–6588.
Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Telang F, Fowler JS, Logan J, Childress AR et al (2008a). Dopamine increases in striatum do not elicit craving in cocaine abusers unless they are coupled with cocaine cues. Neuroimage 39: 1266–1273.
Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Telang F, Fowler JS, Logan J, Jayne M et al (2007). Profound decreases in dopamine release in striatum in detoxified alcoholics: possible orbitofrontal involvement. J Neurosci 27: 12700–12706.
Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Telang F, Fowler JS, Logan J, Wong C et al (2008b). Sleep deprivation decreases binding of [11C]raclopride to dopamine D2/D3 receptors in the human brain. J Neurosci 28: 8454–8461.
Wang GJ, Volkow ND, Fowler JS, Logan J, Abumrad NN, Hitzemann RJ et al (1997). Dopamine D2 receptor availability in opiate-dependent subjects before and after naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. Neuropsychopharmacology 16: 174–182.
Wang Z, Faith M, Patterson F, Tang K, Kerrin K, Wileyto EP et al (2007). Neural substrates of abstinence-induced cigarette cravings in chronic smokers. J Neurosci 27: 14035–14040.
Watkins SS, Stinus L, Koob GF, Markou A (2000). Reward and somatic changes during precipitated nicotine withdrawal in rats: centrally and peripherally mediated effects. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 292: 1053–1064.
Wee S, Wang Z, Woolverton WL, Pulvirenti L, Koob GF (2007). Effect of aripiprazole, a partial D2 receptor agonist, on increased rate of methamphetamine self-administration in rats with prolonged access. Neuropsychopharmacology 32: 2238–2247.
Wee S, Orio L, Ghirmai S, Cashman J, Koob GF (2009). Inhibition of kappa opioid receptors attenuates the increased motivation for cocaine in rats with extended access to cocaine. Psychopharmacology (in press).
Weiss F, Ciccocioppo R, Parsons LH, Katner S, Liu X, Zorrilla EP et al (2001). Compulsive drug-seeking behavior and relapse: neuroadaptation, stress, and conditioning factors. In: Quinones-Jenab V (ed). The Biological Basis of Cocaine Addiction (series title: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol 937) New York Academy of Sciences: New York. pp 1–26.
Weiss F, Markou A, Lorang MT, Koob GF (1992). Basal extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens are decreased during cocaine withdrawal after unlimited-access self-administration. Brain Res 593: 314–318.
Weiss F, Parsons LH, Schulteis G, Hyytia P, Lorang MT, Bloom FE et al (1996). Ethanol self-administration restores withdrawal-associated deficiencies in accumbal dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine release in dependent rats. J Neurosci 16: 3474–3485.
White NM (1996). Addictive drugs as reinforcers: multiple partial actions on memory systems. Addiction 91: 921–949.
Whitelaw RB, Markou A, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (1996). Excitotoxic lesions of the basolateral amygdala impair the acquisition of cocaine-seeking behaviour under a second-order schedule of reinforcement. Psychopharmacology 127: 213–224.
Wikler A (1952). A psychodynamic study of a patient during experimental self-regulated re-addiction to morphine. Psychiatr Q 26: 270–293.
Wise RA (1978). Catecholamine theories of reward: a critical review. Brain Res 152: 215–247.
Wolf ME (2002). Addiction: making the connection between behavioral changes and neuronal plasticity in specific pathways. Mol Intervent 2: 146–157.
Wolf ME, Sun X, Mangiavacchi S, Chao SZ (2004). Psychomotor stimulants and neuronal plasticity. Neuropharmacology 47(Suppl 1): 61–79.
Yao WD, Gainetdinov RR, Arbuckle MI, Sotnikova TD, Cyr M, Beaulieu JM et al (2004). Identification of PSD-95 as a regulator of dopamine-mediated synaptic and behavioral plasticity. Neuron 41: 625–638.
Yeomans J, Baptista M (1997). Both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in ventral tegmental area contribute to brain-stimulation reward. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 57: 915–921.
Yin HH, Ostlund SB, Knowlton BJ, Balleine BW (2005). The role of the dorsomedial striatum in instrumental conditioning. Eur J Neurosci 22: 513–523.
Zubieta JK, Gorelick DA, Stauffer R, Ravert HT, Dannals RF, Frost JJ (1996). Increased mu opioid receptor binding detected by PET in cocaine-dependent men is associated with cocaine craving. Nat Med 2: 1225–1229.
Zubieta J, Lombardi U, Minoshima S, Guthrie S, Ni L, Ohl LE et al (2001). Regional cerebral blood flow effects of nicotine in overnight abstinent smokers. Biol Psychiatry 49: 906–913.