Subjects

Abstract

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple food for more than half of the world's population. To meet the ever-increasing demand for food, because of population growth and improved living standards, world rice production needs to double by 20301. The development of new elite rice varieties with high yield and superior quality is challenging for traditional breeding approaches, and new strategies need to be developed. Here, we report the successful development of new elite varieties by pyramiding major genes that significantly contribute to grain quality and yield from three parents over five years. The new varieties exhibit higher yield potential and better grain quality than their parental varieties and the China's leading super-hybrid rice, Liang-you-pai-jiu (LYP9 or Pei-ai 64S/93-11). Our results demonstrate that rational design is a powerful strategy for meeting the challenges of future crop breeding, particularly in pyramiding multiple complex traits.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    et al. Solutions for a cultivated planet. Nature 478, 337–342 (2011).

  2. 2.

    et al. Super hybrid rice breeding in China: achievements and prospects. J. Integ. Plant Biol. 49, 805–810 (2007).

  3. 3.

    , , & Global food demand and the sustainable intensification of agriculture. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 20260–20264 (2011).

  4. 4.

    in Rice Genetics, Breeding, and Varieties Genealogy in China Vol. 1 (ed. Wan, J. M.) Ch. 742, 85 (China Agricultural Press, 2010).

  5. 5.

    & Rice-eating quality among consumers in different rice grain preference countries. J. Sens. Stud. 23, 1–13 (2008).

  6. 6.

    , , & Comparison of grain quality between F1 hybrids and their parents in indica hybrid rice. Chinese J. Rice Sci. 17, 134–140 (2003).

  7. 7.

    et al. Stable inheritance of the antisense waxy gene in transgenic rice with reduced amylose level and improved quality. Transgenic Res. 12, 71–82 (2003).

  8. 8.

    Strategies for developing Green super rice. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104, 16402–16409 (2007).

  9. 9.

    et al. Analysis on grain quality of indica hybrid rice combinations bred during recent twenty-five years in China. Chin. J. Rice Sci. 25, 201–205 (2011).

  10. 10.

    & Marker-assisted selection in plant breeding: from publications to practice. Crop Sci. 48, 391–407 (2008).

  11. 11.

    et al. Development of submergence-tolerant rice cultivars: the Sub1 locus and beyond. Ann. Bot. 103, 151–160 (2009).

  12. 12.

    et al. Pyramiding three bacterial blight resistance genes (xa5, xa13 and Xa21) using marker-assisted selection into indica rice cultivar PR106. Theor. Appl. Genet. 102, 1011–1015 (2001).

  13. 13.

    et al. Development of resistant gene-pyramided japonica rice for multiple biotic stresses using molecular marker-assisted selection. Plant Breed. 3, 333–345 (2015).

  14. 14.

    et al. A SNP marker for the selection of HfrDrd, a Hessian fly-response gene in wheat. Mol. Breeding. 35, 230 (2015).

  15. 15.

    & Rice breeding in the post-genomics era: from concept to practice. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 16, 261–269 (2013).

  16. 16.

    & Breeding by design. Trends Plant Sci. 8, 330–334 (2003).

  17. 17.

    , & Towards molecular breeding and improvement of rice in China. Trends Plant Sci. 10, 610–614 (2005).

  18. 18.

    et al. Rice functional genomics research: progress and implications for crop genetic improvement. Biotechnol. Adv. 30, 1059–1070 (2012).

  19. 19.

    , , , & Genes offering the potential for designing yield-related traits in rice. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 16, 213–220 (2013).

  20. 20.

    et al. Breeding high-yield superior-quality hybrid super-rice by rational design. Natl Sci. Rev. 3 (2016).

  21. 21.

    & Genetic and molecular bases of rice yield. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 61, 421–442 (2010).

  22. 22.

    et al. Allelic diversities in rice starch biosynthesis lead to a diverse array of rice eating and cooking qualities. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 106, 21760–21765 (2009).

  23. 23.

    & in Rice Varieties and their Genealogy in China (eds Lin, S. C. & Min, S. K.) 33 (Shanghai Science and Technology Press, 1991).

  24. 24.

    Peiliangyou Teqing, a new high-yielding, two-line hybrid rice. Int. Rice Res. News 19, 13–14 (1994).

  25. 25.

    , & Molecular marker-assisted selection for improving cooking and eating quality in Teqing and its hybrid rice. Acta Agronom. Sin. 32, 64–69 (2006).

  26. 26.

    et al. Proteomic analysis of the response of Liangyoupeijiu (super high-yield hybrid rice) seedlings to cold stress. J. Integ. Plant Biol. 48, 945–951 (2006).

  27. 27.

    et al. Expression profiling of genes involved in starch synthesis in sink and source organs of rice. J. Exp. Bot. 56, 3229–3244 (2005).

  28. 28.

    et al. GS3, a major QTL for grain length and weight and minor QTL for grain width and thickness in rice, encodes a putative transmembrane protein. Theor. Appl. Genet. 112, 1164–1171 (2006).

  29. 29.

    et al. Deletion in a gene associated with grain size increased yields during rice domestication. Nat. Genet. 40, 1023–1028 (2008).

  30. 30.

    et al. Cytokinin oxidase regulates rice grain production. Science 309, 741–745 (2005).

  31. 31.

    et al. New approach for rice improvement using a pleiotropic QTL gene for lodging resistance and yield. Nat. Commun. 1, 132 (2010).

  32. 32.

    , & Semidwarf (sd-1), “Green revolution” rice, contains a defective gibberellin 20-oxidase gene. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 99, 9043–9048 (2002).

  33. 33.

    et al. Tac1, a major quantitative trait locus controlling tiller angle in rice. Plant J. 52, 891–898 (2007).

  34. 34.

    et al. Hd1, a major photoperiod sensitivity quantitative trait locus in rice, is closely related to the Arabidopsis flowering time gene CONSTANS. Plant Cell 12, 2473–2484 (2000).

  35. 35.

    & Flowering time genes Heading Date 1 and Early Heading Date 1 together control panicle development in rice. Plant Cell Physiol. 52, 1083–1094 (2011).

  36. 36.

    et al. Natural variation in Ghd7 is an important regulator of heading date and yield potential in rice. Nat. Genet. 40, 761–767 (2008).

  37. 37.

    et al. A major QTL, Ghd8, plays pleiotropic roles in regulating grain productivity, plant height, and heading date in rice. Mol. Plant 4, 319–330 (2011).

  38. 38.

    et al. QTL detection for eating quality of cooked rice in a population of chromosome segment substitution lines. Theor. Appl. Genet. 110, 71–79 (2004).

  39. 39.

    et al. PCR marker-based evaluation of the eating quality of Japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 57, 2754–2762 (2009).

  40. 40.

    et al. Dissecting yield-associated loci in super hybrid rice by resequencing recombinant inbred lines and improving parental genome sequences. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci USA 110, 14492–14497 (2013).

  41. 41.

    et al. Current situation and suggestions for development of two-line hybrid rice in China. Chin. J. Rice Sci. 25, 544–552 (2011).

  42. 42.

    et al. Optimizing hill seeding density for high-yielding hybrid rice in a single rice cropping system in South China. PLoS ONE 9, e109417 (2014).

  43. 43.

    et al. GB/T17891-1999 in National Standard of People's Republic of China (Standards Press of China, 1999).

  44. 44.

    et al. Cooking and eating quality of indica rice varieties from South China by using rice taste analyzer. Chin. J. Rice Sci. 25, 435–438 (2011).

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nos. 91535205, 91435105 and 31521064), the National Key Basic Research Program (grant no. 2013CBA014) and the ‘Strategic Priority Research Program’ of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (grant no. XDA08000000).

Author information

Author notes

    • Dali Zeng
    •  & Zhixi Tian

    These authors contributed equally to this work.

Affiliations

  1. State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310006, China

    • Dali Zeng
    • , Yuchun Rao
    • , Guojun Dong
    • , Yaolong Yang
    • , Lichao Huang
    • , Yujia Leng
    • , Jie Xu
    • , Chuan Sun
    • , Guangheng Zhang
    • , Jiang Hu
    • , Li Zhu
    • , Zhenyu Gao
    • , Xingming Hu
    • , Longbiao Guo
    •  & Qian Qian
  2. State Key Laboratory of Plant Cell and Chromosome Engineering, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

    • Zhixi Tian
  3. Agricultural Genomics Institute at Shenzhen, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenzhen 518120, China

    • Guosheng Xiong
    •  & Qian Qian
  4. State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics and National Centre for Plant Gene Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

    • Yonghong Wang
    •  & Jiayang Li

Authors

  1. Search for Dali Zeng in:

  2. Search for Zhixi Tian in:

  3. Search for Yuchun Rao in:

  4. Search for Guojun Dong in:

  5. Search for Yaolong Yang in:

  6. Search for Lichao Huang in:

  7. Search for Yujia Leng in:

  8. Search for Jie Xu in:

  9. Search for Chuan Sun in:

  10. Search for Guangheng Zhang in:

  11. Search for Jiang Hu in:

  12. Search for Li Zhu in:

  13. Search for Zhenyu Gao in:

  14. Search for Xingming Hu in:

  15. Search for Longbiao Guo in:

  16. Search for Guosheng Xiong in:

  17. Search for Yonghong Wang in:

  18. Search for Jiayang Li in:

  19. Search for Qian Qian in:

Contributions

Q.Q., J.L. and Y.W. designed the project; D.Z. and Y.R. performed the experiments in this study; D.Z., G.D., Y.Y., L.H. and Y.L. performed the molecular assistant selection; D.Z., C.S. and G.Z. contributed to measuring the grain ECQ; J.X., J.H., L.Z. and Z.G. evaluated the taste and palatability of the cooked rice; Z.T. and G.X. were responsible for the development of the gene markers; Z.T., L.G. and X.H. performed the statistical analysis; and D.Z., Z.T., Q.Q. and J.L. wrote the manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Jiayang Li or Qian Qian.

Supplementary information

PDF files

  1. 1.

    Supplementary Information

    Supplementary Figures 1-7 and Supplementary Tables 1-7.

About this article

Publication history

Received

Accepted

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nplants.2017.31

Further reading